Select your language

Suggested languages for you:
Log In Start studying!
StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.
4.8 • +11k Ratings
More than 3 Million Downloads
Free
|
|

All-in-one learning app

  • Flashcards
  • NotesNotes
  • ExplanationsExplanations
  • Study Planner
  • Textbook solutions
Start studying

Organic Compounds

Save Save
Print Print
Edit Edit
Sign up to use all features for free. Sign up now
Organic Compounds

What did you do this morning?

You probably got up, showered and put on some clothes, perhaps made from cotton or acrylic. You then might have sipped at a coffee whilst eating a slice of toast spread thickly with butter and jam. After that, you might have travelled to work or school, perhaps by car or bus, both fuelled by petrol or diesel. At some point, you sat down, pulled out your phone or computer and started reading this article.

What do these activities have in common? They all involve organic compounds. From the material of your clothes and the food you eat to the fuel for your car and the retina in your eyes, organic compounds are everywhere.

  • This article is about organic compounds in chemistry.
  • We'll start by defining organic compounds before looking at the different types of organic compounds.
  • You'll learn terms such as saturated and alicyclic.
  • After that, we'll explore organic compound nomenclature and ways of representing these molecules using formulae.
  • Finally, we'll look at isomerism.

Organic compounds definition

Organic compounds are molecules that are made up of carbon covalently bonded to other atoms, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

There are hundreds of different organic compounds. In fact, thousands - perhaps even millions. They are all based on carbon atoms, covalently bonded to other elements. These are the two fundamental ideas behind organic compounds.


To tell the truth, there is no fixed definition of an organic compound, and some carbon-based molecules are in fact not organic compounds. These include carbonates, cyanides, and carbon dioxide. The reasons behind their exclusion are mostly historic, instead of being based on any defining feature. Structures such as graphite and diamond are also excluded from the group. Because they are made from just one element, they don't count as compounds.

Carbon in organic compounds

Organic molecules are all based on the element carbon. Making up the backbone of all the organic compounds in the world is a big task, but carbon successfully rises to the occasion. But what makes it so versatile?

Well, carbon has two properties in particular that make it so good at forming molecules and compounds:

  • Its tetravalency.
  • Its small size.

Tetravalency

Take a look at carbon's electron configuration, shown below.

Organic Compounds, carbon electron configuration, StudySmarterFig. 1 - Carbon's electron configuration

You can see that carbon has six electrons. Two are found in an inner shell, whilst four are found in its outer shell (also known as its valence shell). These four outer shell electrons make carbon a tetravalent atom. Atoms tend to want to have full outer shells of electrons, and in carbon's case, this means having eight valence electrons. To achieve a full outer shell, the atom needs to form four covalent bonds. It's not fussy about who it bonds with - it is just as happy bonding with oxygen as it is with nitrogen. This means that carbon forms compounds with a range of different elements, and we'll look at examples of organic molecules featuring both oxygen and nitrogen later.

Size

You know that there are other atoms that have four electrons in their outer shell, such as silicon. Why aren't they as versatile and prevalent as carbon?

It's because carbon is a small atom. Its diminutive size means multiple carbon atoms can fit together easily in complicated structures. We say that it is good at catenation - when atoms of the same element join up in long chains.

The combination of small size and tetravalency means the possible arrangements of carbon atoms, covalently bonded both to each other and to other elements, are practically infinite. This is why we have so many different organic compounds.

Bonding in organic compounds

Organic compounds are joined together using covalent bonds.

A covalent bond is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.

Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms each offer up an electron to form a shared pair. The atoms are held together by the electrostatic attraction between their positive nuclei and these negative electrons. This is why most of the elements found in organic compounds are non-metals - they're the ones that can form covalent bonds.

There are a couple of exceptions to this rule - you can find some metals in organic compounds:

  1. Firstly, transition metals can bond to organic compounds using ligand reactions. The two bond together with a dative covalent bond, using a lone pair of electrons from the organic compound. You can read more about this in Transition Metals.
  2. Secondly, beryllium, a group 2 metal, can also form covalent bonds. You'll find out why in the article Group 2.

Types of organic compounds

In this next section, we're going to look at different types of organic compounds and ways of classifying them. We can do this in different ways.

  • The easiest way to group organic molecules is by their functional group.
  • We can also distinguish between aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic compounds.
  • Another useful label is saturated or unsaturated.

First, we'll take a look at functional groups.

Functional groups in organic compounds

A species' functional group is the particular group of atoms responsible for its chemical reactions.

The easiest way to distinguish organic compounds is by their functional group. This is the atom or combination of atoms that makes it react in a certain way. Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group, often written as \(COOH\), whereas amines contain - you guessed it - the amine functional group, or \(-NH_2\)

Types of functional groups

You'll come across the following functional groups when looking at organic compounds.

Family nameFunctional groupPrefix/suffix
Alkane\(C-C\)-ane
Alkene\(C=C\)-ene
Alkyne\( C\equiv N\)-yne
Alcohol\(R-OH\)-ol or hydroxy-
Halogenoalkane\(R-X\)Varying suffix-ane
Aldehyde\(R-CHO\)-al
Ketone\(R-CO-R\)-one
Carboxylic acid\(R-COOH\)-oic acid
Ester\(R-COO-R\)-oate
Amine\( -NH_2 \)-amine or amino-

We explore all of these groups in more detail in the article Functional Groups.

Wondering what the prefixes and suffixes are for? We use them to name organic compounds, as you'll find out in IUPAC Nomenclature.

Homologous series

Molecules with the same functional group react in very similar ways. Because of that, we tend to group them together in a homologous series.

A homologous series is a group of organic molecules with the same functional group, but different carbon chain lengths.

A homologous series has some fixed properties.

  • All members can be represented by a general formula. This is a formula that expresses the basic ratio of different atoms in a molecule. We'll explore it in more depth in just a second.
  • Members all have the same functional group, as we mentioned above.
  • Members differ only by the number and arrangement of \(-CH_2\) groups in their carbon chain.
  • All members have the same chemical properties and undergo the same reactions. However, they might have different physical properties.

Aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic compounds

Organic molecules can also be classified as aliphatic, aromatic, or alicyclic.

  • Aliphatic compounds are based on carbon chains full of \(-CH_2\) groups. They don't feature any benzene rings, and can have long straight chains or form cyclic rings. Aliphatic compounds with cyclic rings are called alicyclic compounds.
  • In contrast, aromatic compounds contain benzene rings with delocalised pi electrons. We represent these rings using a hexagon with a circle in the middle.

Want to find out more about the wonders of benzene? Head over to Aromatic Chemistry, where all will be explained!

Saturated and unsaturated compounds

A third way of labelling organic compounds is using the terms saturated and unsaturated.

  • Saturated compounds contain only single \(C-C\) bonds.
  • Unsaturated compounds contain one or more double \(C=C\) bonds or triple \( C\equiv C\) bonds.

You might remember from earlier that a \(C=C\) double bond is the functional group found in alkenes. This makes all alkenes unsaturated compounds. The \( C\equiv C\) triple bond, however, is the functional group found in alkynes. Once again, this makes all alkynes unsaturated.

Biological organic compounds

In biology, you'll probably come across four main groups of organic compounds that are fundamental to life. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. We won't go into them here - they're much too important for that! However, you can find out more in the articles dedicated to these molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids.

Naming organic compounds

Now that we know more about the different types of organic compounds, we can have a look at naming them. The practice of naming organic compounds is known as nomenclature. The official nomenclature system was created by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which is the system you need to know for your exams.

To name a molecule, you use the following:

  • A root name, to show the length of the molecule's longest carbon chain.
  • Prefixes and suffixes, to show any functional groups and side chains (known as substituents).
  • Numbers, known as locants, to show the position of functional groups and side chains.

For example, take the molecule 2-bromopropane. The root name -prop- tells us that this molecule is based on a propane chain, which is three carbon atoms long. The suffix -ane indicates that it is an alkane, whilst the prefix bromo- lets us know that this molecule has an additional bromine atom, and so is in fact a halogenoalkane. How about the number 2? That shows that the bromine atom is attached to the second carbon atom in the chain.

Organic compounds, 2-bromopropane nomenclature, StudySmarterFig. 2 - 2-bromopropane

Nomenclature is a complicated topic, and so we've created a whole article specially dedicated to solving its mysteries. Head over to IUPAC Nomenclature for more.

Organic compound formulae

Let's now focus our attention on ways of representing organic compounds. We do this using chemical formulae. There are a few different types you need to know about. These include:

  • General formula
  • Molecular formula
  • Structural formula
  • Displayed formula
  • Skeletal formula

One formula, two formulae - formula is the singular, and formulae is the plural. Don't get them mixed up!

Let's start with general formulae.

Organic compound general formulae

A general formula is a formula that shows the basic ratio of atoms in a compound or molecule. It can be applied to a whole homologous series.

If you want to represent a whole family of compounds with the same functional group, you can use a general formula. They're useful because they can be applied to all the members of a homologous series.

General formulae express the numbers of atoms of each element in a compound in terms of \(n\) . For example, all alkanes have the general formula \(C_nH_{2n+2}\) . The formula tells us that if an alkane has n carbon atoms, it will have \(2n+2\) hydrogen atoms. This means that once we know the number of carbon atoms in an alkane, we can always find out its number of hydrogen atoms - you double the carbon number and add 2. Of course, we can go backwards as well - subtracting 2 from the number of hydrogens and then halving the result gives you the number of carbons. The general formula works for all of the alkanes in the alkane homologous series, from the very small to the very large.

Organic compound molecular formulae

General formulae are good at representing a whole family of compounds, but they aren't good at specifying an individual compound. We can do this in several ways. The first way of representing a specific compound is by using its molecular formula.

A molecular formula is a formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound.

Let's say that we have an alkane with four carbon atoms. From the general formula, we know that it has \( (2\times 4) + 2 = 10\) hydrogen atoms. Its molecular formula is therefore \(C_4H_{10}\)

Organic compound structural formulae

There's a problem when we only rely on molecular formulae to represent molecules: different molecules can have the same molecular formula. You'll see more of this when we look at isomerism later on. A different type of formula we can use is a structural formula.

A structural formula is a shorthand representation of the structure and arrangement of atoms in a molecule, without showing every bond.

When writing structural formulae, we move along the molecule from one end to the other, writing out each carbon and the groups attached to it separately.

Here's an example. Take the molecular formula \( C_3H_6O\). This could represent multiple different compounds - for example, propanal or propanone.

Propanal has the structural formula \( CH_3CH_2CHO\). This tells us that it has a \( -CH_3\) group, bonded to a \( -CH_2-\) group, bonded to a \( -CHO\) group. In contrast, propanone has the structural formula \( CH_3COCH_3\) .This tells us that it has a \( -CH_3\) group, bonded to a\( -CO-\) group, bonded to a\( -CH_3\) group. Do you notice the slight difference?

Organic Compounds, structural formulae propanal propanone, StudySmarterFig. 3 - Structural formulae

Organic compound displayed formulae

If we want to show all of the bonds in a compound, we use its displayed formula. Displayed formulae often come in handy when drawing reaction mechanisms.

Displayed formulae show every atom and bond in a molecule.

In displayed formulae, we represent bonds using straight lines. A single straight line tells us that we have a single bond, whereas a double straight line tells us we have a double bond. Although they can be a pain to draw out, displayed formulae are useful because they give us important information about a molecule's unique structure, bonding, and arrangement of atoms.

For example, ethanol has the structural formula \( CH_3CH_2OH\) and the following displayed formula:

Organic Compounds, displayed formula of ethanol, StudySmarterFig. 4 - Displayed formula of ethanol

In this example, we've drawn all the bonds as if the molecule were flat on the page. However, bonds aren't like that in real life. If we want to show a bond sticking out of the page, we use a wedged line. If we want to show a bond protruding backwards into the page, we use a dashed line. Here's an example using methane.

Organic Compounds, 3D chemical molecules, StudySmarterFig. 5 - Drawing 3D chemical molecules

Organic compound skeletal formulae

The final type of formula we'll look at is the skeletal formula.

Skeletal formulae are another type of formula that act as a shorthand representation of a molecule, showing some aspects of its structure and bonding. It omits certain atoms and bonds in order to simplify the diagram.

Drawing displayed formulae over and over again takes a lot of time. This is where skeletal formulae come in handy. They're an easy way of showing a molecule's structure and bonding without drawing every atom and bond. As in displayed formulae, you represent bonds using straight lines. However, you leave out carbon atoms. You represent these missing carbons using the vertices of the lines, assuming that there is a carbon atom at every unlabelled vertex, junction, or end of a line. You also omit carbon-hydrogen bonds. Instead, you assume that each carbon atom forms exactly four covalent bonds, and that any bonds that aren't shown are carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Sound confusing? Let's take a look at an example. We've already seen the displayed formula of ethanol, \( CH_3CH_2OH\) . Here's how it translates into a skeletal formula.

Organic compounds, skeletal formula of ethanol, StudySmarterFig. 6 - Skeletal formula of ethanol

Isomerism in organic compounds

We've learnt about types of organic compounds and the different formulae we can use to represent them. Finally, let's look at isomerism.

Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula, but different arrangements of atoms.

Do you remember how earlier we mentioned that molecular formulae aren't that helpful, as one molecular formula can represent multiple different molecules? Well, this is why. Isomers contain exactly the same number of atoms of each element, but the atoms are arranged differently.

There are two main types of isomerism in chemistry.

  • Structural isomerism
  • Stereoisomerism

Structural isomerism

Structural isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

Let's revisit propanal and propanone. As we discovered, they both have the same molecular formula: \( C_3H_6O\) . However, they have different structural formulae. Propanal has the structural formula \( CH_3CH_2CHO\) , and propanone has the structural formula \( CH_3COCH_3\) . This makes them structural isomers.

Structural isomerism can be further split into three subtypes:

  • Chain isomers differ in the arrangement of their carbon chain. For example, one isomer might be straight, whilst the other might be branched.
  • Functional group isomers have different functional groups. Propanal and propanone are great examples of this - the first is an aldehyde, the second is a ketone.
  • Position isomers differ in their placement of the functional group on their carbon chain. For example, propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol are both isomers with the same molecular formula, \(C_3H_8O\) and the same functional group, an \(-OH\) group. But whilst in propan-1-ol the functional group is found on carbon 1, in propan-2-ol, the functional group is found on carbon 2.

Organic Compounds, position isomerism propan-1-ol propan-2-ol, StudySmarterFig. 7 - Position isomerism in propanol

Stereoisomerism

Another type of isomerism is stereoisomerism. If you thought structural isomers were similar, you better brace yourself - stereoisomers are even more alike!

Stereoisomers have both the same molecular formula and the same structural formula, but different arrangements of atoms in space.

To identify stereoisomers, you need to look at a molecule's displayed formula. Remember, this is a formula that shows every atom and bond. It also shows the arrangement of atoms and bonds; this is where stereoisomers differ.

Once again, there are a couple of subtypes of stereoisomerism:

  • E-Z isomers differ in their arrangement of atoms or groups around a \( C=C\) double bond. You'll find E-Z isomerism in alkenes such as but-2-ene.
  • Optical isomers differ in their arrangement of 4 different atoms or groups around a central carbon atom. They form non-superimposable, mirror-image molecules of each other.

For more examples of structural and stereoisomerism in action, take a look at Isomerism.

Organic Compounds - Key takeaways

  • Organic compounds are molecules that are made up of carbon covalently bonded to other atoms, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • Carbon is suitable for organic compounds because of its small size, tetravalency, and ability to catenate.
  • Organic compounds have different functional groups. Molecules with the same functional group form a homologous series. These all have the same chemical properties, can be represented by a general formula, and differ only in the number and arrangement of \(-CH_2\) groups in their carbon chain.
  • Organic compounds can be classified as aliphatic, aromatic, or alicyclic. They can also be saturated or unsaturated.
  • We name organic compounds using IUPAC nomenclature. Names include a root name to indicate the length of the longest carbon chain, prefixes and suffixes to indicate the functional groups and side chains present, and locants to show the position of these functional groups and side chains.
  • Organic compounds are represented using formulae. Types of formulae include general, molecular, structural, displayed, and skeletal.
  • Organic compounds can show isomerism. Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms. Structural isomers differ in their structural formulae, whereas stereoisomers have the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms and bonds.

Frequently Asked Questions about Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are molecules that are made up of carbon covalently bonded to other atoms, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Volatile organic compounds, also known as VOCs, are organic compounds that readily turn into a gas at room temperature. They're emitted by certain solids and liquids.

In general, polar organic compounds are soluble in water. These include molecules with hydroxyl, carboxyl, or amine functional groups. However, nonpolar molecules are insoluble in water. These include molecules with long hydrocarbon chains.

Organic compounds have practically infinite uses. We use them as fuels for vehicles, find them in pharmaceuticals and soaps, eat them as food, and use them as structural materials within our body.

In biology, the four main types of organic compound are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Final Organic Compounds Quiz

Question

What is an organic compound?

Show answer

Answer

A molecule that is made up of carbon covalently bonded to other atoms, most commonly hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. 

Show question

Question

What element are all organic compounds based on?

Show answer

Answer

Carbon

Show question

Question

What type of bonding do you find in organic compounds?

Show answer

Answer

Covalent

Show question

Question

What is a functional group?

Show answer

Answer

The particular group of atoms responsible for its chemical reactions. 

Show question

Question

Which of the following are functional groups?

Show answer

Answer

-CH3

Show question

Question

What are the four characteristics of a homologous series?

Show answer

Answer

  • All members can be represented by a general formula. 
  • Members all have the same functional group.
  • Members differ only by the number and arrangement of -CH2- groups in their carbon chain.
  • All members have the same chemical properties.

Show question

Question

What is an aliphatic compound?

Show answer

Answer

Molecules based on carbon chains full of -CH2- groups, without any benzene rings.

Show question

Question

What are aromatic compounds?

Show answer

Answer

Molecules containing benzene rings.

Show question

Question

What is an unsaturated compound?

Show answer

Answer

A compound with one or more C=C double bond or C≡C triple bond.

Show question

Question

In nomenclature, root names show the molecule's _____.

Show answer

Answer

Longest carbon chain

Show question

Question

In nomenclature, prefixes and suffixes shown the molecule's _____.

Show answer

Answer

Functional groups and side chains.

Show question

Question

In nomenclature, numbers show _____.

Show answer

Answer

The position of the molecule's functional groups and side chains.

Show question

Question

What are structural isomers?

Show answer

Answer

Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

Show question

Question

What are the three types of structural isomerism?

Show answer

Answer

Chain

Show question

Question

What are stereoisomers?

Show answer

Answer

Molecules with the same molecular and structural formulae but different spatial arrangements of atoms.

Show question

Question

What are the two types of stereoisomerism?

Show answer

Answer

E-Z 

Show question

Question

Which type of formula shows every atom and bond in a molecule?

Show answer

Answer

Displayed

Show question

Question

Which type of formula can be applied to a whole homologous series?

Show answer

Answer

General

Show question

Question

Which types of formulae give a shorthand version of a molecule's structure, without showing every atom and bond?

Show answer

Answer

Structural

Show question

Question

What are the 4 key elements involved in organic molecules other than carbon?

Show answer

Answer

Hydrogen, Sulphur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen 

Show question

Question

How many types of structural functional groups are there? Name them

Show answer

Answer

3: alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

Show question

Question

Which of the following functional groups have oxygen

Show answer

Answer

Thiols

Show question

Question

What are the key parts that Lewis structures are able to represent?

Show answer

Answer

Bonded and unbonded (lone) pairs of electrons. 

Show question

Question

Do electronic structures of elements show electrons if they are not present in the valency shell?

Show answer

Answer

No

Show question

Question

In a skeletal structure, what is the angle created between two bonds (lines)?

Show answer

Answer

120°

Show question

Question

Which of the following functional groups has an oxygen at the end of the carbon chain? 

Show answer

Answer

Aldehyde

Show question

Question

Are alcohols considered carbonyls?

Show answer

Answer

No, as they do not have a carbon double bonded to oxygen. 

Show question

Question

What is the definition of a carbonyl? 

Show answer

Answer

Oxygen double bonded to a carbon. 

Show question

Question

In Lewis structures, how can you depict lone pairs of electrons?

Show answer

Answer

Two dots 


Show question

Question

How many electrons can fill up the first shell of an atom?

Show answer

Answer

2

Show question

Question

How many electrons can fill up the second shell of an atom?

Show answer

Answer

8

Show question

Question

In skeletal structures of organic molecules, are all hydrogens depicted with bonds?

Show answer

Answer

No, only at the end of chains. 

Show question

Question

What is another term for 'features' of organic molecule structure?

Show answer

Answer

Functional groups

Show question

Question

How do you call an alcohol by the IUPAC rules?

Show answer

Answer

Add the suffix -ol at the end of the IUPAC name for the longest carbon chain in the molecule. 

Show question

Question

What is IUPAC nomenclature?

Show answer

Answer

IUPAC nomenclature is a way of naming organic compounds and molecules, invented by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).


Show question

Question

Which of the following are parts of a IUPAC nomenclature name?

Show answer

Answer

A root name

Show question

Question

A molecule's root name tells you _____.

Show answer

Answer

The length of its parent chain.

Show question

Question

How do you identify a molecule's parent chain?

Show answer

Answer

A molecule's parent chain is its longest carbon chain that contains the parent functional group, which is its highest priority functional group. If the molecule contains multiple copies of the parent functional group, the parent chain is always the carbon chain that contains as many copies of this functional group as possible - even if other chains are longer. 

Show question

Question

Give the root names for parent chains that are up to 4 carbon atoms long.

Show answer

Answer

  1. -meth-
  2. -eth-
  3. -prop-
  4. -but-

Show question

Question

Which of the following statements are correct?

Show answer

Answer

A molecule's suffix tells you about its parent functional group.

Show question

Question

How do you decide which functional group is the parent functional group?

Show answer

Answer

You look for the functional group with the highest priority according to the order produced by IUPAC.

Show question

Question

Some molecules require multiple prefixes. How do you order these prefixes according to IUPAC rules?

Show answer

Answer

In alphabetical order.

Show question

Question

True or false? We always show alkyl groups using a prefix.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

True or false? A molecule can have more than one suffix.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

Saturation indicators show _____.

Show answer

Answer

The molecule's saturation: whether it contains any unsaturated C=C double or C≡C triple bonds. 

Show question

Question

Which of the following statements are true?

Show answer

Answer

If a molecule has no other functional groups, we show saturation using a suffix.

Show question

Question

What saturation indicator would you use for:

  1. A saturated molecule?
  2. An unsaturated molecule with a C=C double bond?
  3. An unsaturated molecule with a C≡C triple bond?

Show answer

Answer

  1. -an-
  2. -en-
  3. -yn-

Show question

Question

What are locants?

Show answer

Answer

Locants are numbers showing the position of a functional group or substituent within an organic molecule. In particular, they tell us which carbon atom the component is bonded to. 

Show question

Question

Describe how you assign locants using the lowest number rule.

Show answer

Answer

You number the parent chain in both directions, from left to right and right to left. You then decide on the correct numbering possibility using the following three rules in order:

  1. Look at the position of the parent functional group. Choose the numbering possibility which means that this functional group has the lowest-numbered locant.
  2. If both numbering possibilities mean that the parent functional group is attached to the same number locant, look at the positions of any unsaturated bonds. Choose the numbering possibility which means that the unsaturated bond has the lowest-numbered locant.
  3. If both numbering possibilities are still the same, look at the position of any functional groups or substituents indicated by the prefixes. Choose the number possibility which means that this functional group or substituent has the lowest-numbered locant.


Show question

Question

True or false? The parent functional group should always have the lowest possible numbered locant.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

60%

of the users don't pass the Organic Compounds quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

Start Quiz

Discover the right content for your subjects

No need to cheat if you have everything you need to succeed! Packed into one app!

Study Plan

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Quizzes

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Flashcards

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Notes

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Study Sets

Have all your study materials in one place.

Documents

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Study Analytics

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Weekly Goals

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Smart Reminders

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Rewards

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Magic Marker

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Smart Formatting

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.