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# Consonance

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## Repetition of consonant sounds

Two literary techniques involve the repetition of consonant sounds. One of these is alliteration, which uses the same sound repeatedly used at the beginning of words in a phrase or sequence (we'll come back to this later), and the other is consonance, which is the topic of this article.

Consonance is a poetic technique commonly used in literature. You may be surprised to learn that consonance also occurs in songs, everyday speech, and names.

## What is Consonance?

Consonance is the repetition of the same consonant sounds in a series of closely connected words in a sentence or a phrase. The repeated consonant sounds may occur in any part of the words - beginning, middle or end. Usually, you can identify consonance when you spot that the same sound is repeated in several consecutive words.

## Consonant letters

Consonants are speech sounds made when there is some kind of stricture in the vocal tract. The consonant letters are:

• b
• c
• d
• f
• g
• h
• j
• k
• l
• m
• n
• p
• q
• r
• s
• t
• v
• w
• x
• y
• z

Although these are all of the consonant letters, it's the particular sounds they make in words that you need to pay attention to when identifying consonance.

## How can you identify consonance?

It is not difficult to identify consonance, as long as you remember that it only concerns consonant sounds and that these sounds could be repeated in any part of words that are closely connected to each other. Another thing to keep in mind is that the repetition of the same sound does not necessarily mean the repetition of the same letter.

The sound of the letter "f" may correspond to the sound of the letters "ph".

There are 24 consonant sounds in English.

## What are some examples of consonance?

Consonance is a popular literary device that has a wide range of usages.

### Consonance in poetry

Since consonance is a poetic technique it makes an appearance in many poems.

Let's look at this example from the poem "Behind Me - Dips Eternity'' (1863)¹ by Emily Dickinson:

''Behind Me - dips Eternity-

Before Me - Immortality-

Myself - the term between -

Death but the Drift of Eastern Gray"

Pay attention to the highlighted repetition of the "t" sound in several words in the verse. As you can see, the same sound occurs at the beginning, middle and end of the words, and sometimes even in different parts of the same word. Try reading the excerpt out loud and you may notice how the words roll off the tongue! This effect is possible because of the use of consonance.

Another example of consonance in poetry is "Out-Out" (1961)² by Robert Frost:

"The buzz saw snarled and rattled in the yard

And made dust and dropped stove-length sticks of wood"

Notice how the "d" sound is repeated in different parts of closely-connected words. This verse is an example of the effect consonance often has on the rhythm of a poem. There is a certain singsong quality to the language of the poem that is produced by repetition.

### Consonance in prose

Prose may be different from poetry, but the quality of language in prose is just as vital as it is in poetry. The use of consonance can make a specific group of words stand out so that the reader is prompted to reread them and to understand them at a deeper level. Additionally, implementing consonance in prose can make the sound of the words correspond to their meaning.

Let's look at an example from Moby-Dick (1851)³ by American novelist Herman Melville:

"Nearly all joined in singing this hymn, which swelled high about the howling of the storm."

In this sentence, Melville depicts people who are singing a hymn together during a storm. Notice how the repetition of the "s" and "h" sounds adds a singsong quality to the sentence, making it mirror the action that is described in it. The sound of the words reflects the action of singing a hymn in a howling storm.

Here's another famous example of the use of consonance in prose, from the King James Version of the Bible (1611)4. Pay attention to the repetition of the "th" sound in Psalm 23: 4:

“Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me."

If you read this passage out loud, you might notice how the consonance helps slow down your speech. Like in the example from Moby-Dick, the quality of the sound of the words reflects the action that is depicted. One would imagine walking through 'the valley of the shadow of death' to be a slow and careful process.

### Consonance in common phrases

Consonance is a literary device but that doesn't mean that it only appears in literature. Whether we realize it or not, we all use consonance in everyday speech.

Perhaps you have a friend who is usually the last one to do something. Do you tell them not to worry, that "it's a matter of time"? Maybe they reply with, "Better late than never"? Or maybe they still prefer to do this but "a little later".

These are only a few examples that serve to prove that consonance appears in common phrases that we use on a daily basis.

Moreover, consonance also occurs in popular tongue twisters:

Betty Botter bought some butter but, she said, the butter's bitter; if I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter. But a bit of better butter, that will make my batter better.

Tongue twisters are fun tools that are often used to help children learn pronunciation and clear diction. Professional actors and other public speakers also use tongue twisters. It is the use of consonance that makes the words in tongue twisters sound similar to each other, and aids with the challenge of saying those phrases out loud.

### Consonance in songs

We've already mentioned that consonance can add a certain musical quality to language. It shouldn't come as a surprise to you that the literary device is also used in song lyrics.

Let's have a look at this example from Bob Dylan's song "Subterranean Homesick Blues'' (1965):

“Maggie comes fleet foot

Face full-a black soot

Talkin' that the heat put"

Notice how the repetition of the sounds "f" and "t" in the lyrics makes an otherwise bleak story feel slightly more joyous because of the playful tone of the composition.

### Consonance in names

Many names that you encounter in your everyday life contain consonance.

These could be the names of fictional characters, such as:

Holly Golightly from the classic novella (1958) and film (1961) Breakfast at Tiffany's.

Sometimes both the name of a fictional character and the name of their author can contain consonance:

Such is the case with American-British writer Raymond Chandler and his fictional detective Philipe Marlowe.

These names could also be familiar titles or longer names:

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer

The Wizard of Oz

The name 'Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer' contains consonance of the letter 'R', making it a memorable name. - Wikimedia Commons.

Or, believe it or not, names containing consonance may even be the names of people you personally know! You might know an Abigail Tagg, for example.

## Consonance vs. Alliteration vs. Assonance - what is the difference?

Alliteration and assonance are two other literary devices that have to do with the repetition of sounds. Sometimes it is easy to confuse them with consonance, so let's talk about how you can tell them apart.

### Consonance vs. alliteration

Alliteration is a form of consonance that normally only appears at the beginning of words.

You can spot alliteration in a phrase when you notice that the same consonant sound is repeated at the beginning of the words. If the same sound also occurs in the middle or the end of the words, then you are looking at consonance.

This excerpt from the song "We Go Together" from the musical Grease (1978) is an example of consonance that is also alliteration:

As you can see, the "m" and "g" sounds, that appear in the middle and in the end of the words, are an example of consonance. However, since the "d" sound occurs at the beginning of the words, this means that this is also an example of alliteration.

Now, let's take a look at an example of consonance that is NOT also alliteration:

Mike likes his new bike.

In this sentence there is no repetition of consonant sounds in the beginning of the words. The repeated "k" sound only occurs in the middle of the words. This is an example of consonance but it is not an example of alliteration.

### Consonance vs. Assonance

Assonance is the repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds in a series of words in a sentence or a phrase. Like consonance, the repeated sounds could appear at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the words.

Assonance is like consonance but for vowel sounds instead of consonant sounds. As long as you pay attention to whether a repeated sound is a vowel or a consonant, you should be able to tell assonance from consonance.

These example sentences will help you spot the difference between consonance and assonance:

Consonance: He struck a streak of bad luck.

Assonance: The cat is out of the bag.

In the example of consonance, the repeated sounds “k” is a consonant sound and there is no repetition of vowel sounds. In the example of assonance the repeated sound "a" is a vowel sound and there is no repetition of consonant sounds.

## Consonance - key takeaways

• Consonance is a literary device which occurs when the same consonant sounds are repeated in a series of closely connected words in a sentence or a phrase.
• The repeated sounds can be anywhere within the words - at the beginning, the middle or the end.
• Consonance is a poetic technique that is used in poetry, prose and songs. Consonance also appears in common phrases and names.
• You can identify consonance by spotting the repetition of the same consonant sounds (that may not necessarily be the same letters) in a series of words. These sounds may appear in different parts of the words.
• Consonance is similar yet different from alliteration and assonance. Alliteration is a form of consonance that usually occurs only at the beginning of words. Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words in a phrase or a sentence.

SOURCE:

¹ Emily Dickinson, Behind Me-Dips Eternity, 1863

²Robert Frost, Out-Out, 1961

³Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, 1851

4 King James Version of the Bible, 1611

5 Edna St. Vincent Millay, Travel, 1921 [flashcards]

Consonance is when the same consonant sounds (that may not necessarily be the same letters) are repeated in closely connected words in a sentence or a phrase.

All letters that are not vowels are consonants. There are 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet: B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, and Z.

Vowels and consonants are the two different kinds of sounds in our speech. Vowels and consonants also refer to letters that correspond to the sounds. There are 21 consonant letters ( B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z) and 5 vowel letters (A, E, I, O, U) in the English alphabet. In English there are many more vowel sounds than there are vowel letters. This is because each letter vowel can be pronounced in different ways depending on the word it is in. Alliteration, assonance and consonance have to do with shared sounds rather than shared letters.

A consonant is a speech sound created with some kind of stricture in the vocal tract.

Consonant is the name given to a type of speech sound that is created with some kind of stricture in the vocal tract. This means that the airflow is obstructed by an articulator when it is being released, creating a specific consonant sound.

## Final Consonance Quiz

Question

What form of writing is this example of consonance from?

'The buzz saw snarled and rattled in the yard

And made dust and dropped stove-length sticks of wood'.

Poetry.

This consonance is from Robert Frost's poem Out-Out (1961).

Show question

Question

Is this an example of consonance or assonance?

'And the day is loud with voices speaking'. (5)

Assonance

Show question

Question

Is this an example of consonance that is also alliteration or consonance that is NOT also alliteration?

Severus Snape

Consonance that is also alliteration

Show question

Question

How can you identify that this is an example of assonance and NOT an example of consonance?

Hey,Nathan! Wait for me!

You can identify the assonance by spotting the repeated vowel sound  ey ''.

Hey, N a than! W ai t for me!

Show question

Question

Is this an example of consonance or assonance?

Twist tie

Consonance

Show question

Question

Is this an example of consonance that is also alliteration or consonance that is NOT also alliteration?

We zigged. It zagged.

Consonance that is also alliteration.

Show question

Question

What form of writing is this example of consonance from?

'Maggie comes fleet foot

Face full-a black soot'.

Song lyrics.

This example of consonance is from Bob Dylan's song Subterranean Homesick Blues.

Show question

Question

How can you tell that this excerpt from the rap song Brooklyn's Finest by Jay-Z is an example of consonance and NOT an example of assonance?

'Peep the style and the way the cops sweat us'.

You can identify the consonance by spotting the repeated consonant sound 's'.

'Peep the style and the way the copsweat us'.

Show question

Question

Does this phrase contain consonance?

'Jazz music'.

Yes

Show question

Question

Does this phrase contain consonance?

Jazz music

Yes

Show question

Question

How can you tell that this is an example of consonance that is NOT also alliteration?

You can tell that this phrase is an example of consonance by spotting the repeated 'd', 'r' and 't' sounds. You can tell that it is not an example of alliteration by noticing that none of these sounds is repeated at the beginning of the words. Note that the 'd' and 'r' sounds only appear at the beginning of words once - if there were two words in the phrase starting with the 'd' sound, then the phrase would be alliterative.

Show question

Question

Does this phrase contain consonance?

'Soul music'.

No

Show question

Question

What is the repeated consonant sound in this consonance?

George Jetson

The sound “j” is repeated in the letters “g” and “j”.

George Jetson

Show question

Question

What is the repeated consonant sound in this consonance?

'Traffic is making my Friday tough'.

The sound 'f' is repeated in the letters 'f' and 'gh'.

Traffic is making my Friday tough.

Show question

Question

What is the repeated consonant sound in this consonance?

'I feel fantastic on this fine day because I had a big cup of coffee!'

The sound 'f' is repeated in the letter 'f'.

I feel fantastic on this fine day because I had a big cup of coffee!

Show question

Question

What is consonance?

Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds in a string of words or phrase.

Show question

Question

Where is consonance used?

Consonance is used in poetry, literature, song writing, every day speech and names.

Show question

Question

Where in a word can repeated consonants be to be classified as consonance?

Any position

Show question

Question

How many consonant letters are there in English?

21

Show question

Question

What is a consonant?

A consonant is a speech sound created with some form of stricture in the vocal tract.

Show question

Question

How many consonant sounds are there in the English language?

24

Show question

Question

Does the same letter have to be repeated for it to be classified as consonance?

Not necessarily, it just needs to be the same speech sound, such as 'ph' and 'f'.

Show question

Question

Which of these is not an example of consonance?

Bleak speech

Show question

Question

What does consonance do?

Consonance is a literary device that is used as a poetic technique in literature. In poetry, consonance adds a singsong quality to the words and has an effect on the rhythm of a poem. In prose, the repetition of sounds produced by consonance is used to make specific words stand out to the reader. Consonance can be used to mirror the meaning of the message.

Show question

Question

What is the difference between consonance and alliteration?

Alliteration is a literary device that is actually a form of consonance. Alliteration normally occurs when the same sounds are repeated only at the beginning of the words in a sentence or a phrase, whereas the repetition of sounds in consonance can occur anywhere in the words.

Show question

Question

What is the difference between consonance and assonance?

Assonance is a literary device which occurs when similar or the same vowel sounds are repeated anywhere in a series of words. Assonance is for vowel sounds what consonance is for consonant sounds.

Show question

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