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Past and Present Connections

Past and Present Connections

Past and present connections are the influences that affect areas. They can be national, international, or historic, and have a wide variety of effects. There are various connections affecting areas, including national and regional influences, international influences, and historical influences. It is important to understand how these influences connect.

National and regional influence

There are a number of influences both nationally and locally. These include:

  • Transport and infrastructure

  • Politics

  • Nearby urban areas

  • Regional governance

Transport and infrastructure

The construction of transport links has had a major commercial impact on many areas as it creates access to jobs and new jobs in the transport industry. This has also increased the value of some areas and vastly improved the quality of life there.

Politics

The political attitudes and choices of an area can drastically affect the area. Overall, politics can affect any number of things.

For example, the UK’s Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher reduced mining employment in much of the country during the 1980s. Some areas historically only support a single party.

Alongside this, different governments can affect what kind of businesses or sectors are given more investment. For example, Conservative policies saw a growth of commercial businesses in city centres.

Nearby urban areas

The location of shopping and leisure activities can affect an area. People will move nearby for access or work.

As well as this, introducing commercial income into an area can vastly improve the quality of the area around it. With new shopping centres and leisure areas, housing around the area becomes more expensive because of the greater quality of life and continues to grow the area's financial profile.

Regional governance

Councils and other groups can affect an area. They can decide on partnerships, groups and funds to influence how smaller areas can develop.

For example, local enterprise partnerships decide on what projects an area needs and can work with councils to bring these to reality (there are 38 in the UK).

International and global Influences

International and global influences are at a much wider scale, coming in the form of worldwide factors and connections between countries. There are six main influences at a global scale:

  • Global Tourism Opportunities and International Airports

  • Twinning

  • TNCs and Global Retailers

  • Migration

  • EU

  • International Trade Agreements

Global tourism opportunities and international airports

Many areas, usually capital cities or islands, have their economies shaped by tourism. Places like London have a wide range of hotels, restaurants and ‘sight-seeing’ businesses that draw a large income from the international visitors.

International airports have added to this tourist industry with a higher number of visitors being able to reach the area. They are usually near hotels which use the closeness to their advantage as many tourists book in nearby.

Twinning

Twinning is the act of two similar areas forming a twinning arrangement that connects them. This has led to a higher level of intercultural understanding, improving the diversity of both areas’ cultures. Town twinning was started to improve relationships between countries after World War II.

Paris and Rome were twinned in 1957.

TNCs and global retailers

TNCs (Trans-National Corporations) affect high streets by spreading throughout a country, resulting in a ‘clone high street’. This is where a high street has many TNCs and very few shops are different from another high street, decreasing the variety of shops. The other impact these global retailers and TNCs have is the opening of jobs, for example, large companies such as Google and Facebook opening new offices across the globe.

Past and Present connections, TNCs and Global Retailers, StudySmarterImage showing a rack of clothes within a store, Pixabay

Migration

There are three main forms of migration that impact a place: tourists, migrants and immigrants.

Tourists are there for small amounts of time, bringing in international money which is fed back into entertainment and leisure businesses as well as improving areas that they visit.

Migrants can be from both overseas and from within the country. They may look for work or be moving for a small amount of time. As they do this, the population density of an area can increase and change the stress on an area's services while also boosting the economy by bringing in more taxes and workers.

Finally, international immigrants often look to move into an area either permanently or for a large amount of time. This leads to a change of culture and population structure with many families and young students/workers entering larger areas such as cities like London or Manchester.

In the past, many young workers moved to larger cities either permanently or for a season. This led to a growth in the population of many city centres, which resulted in much stronger economies in the future.

EU

The European Union can affect entire countries with support and agreements between countries. Funds such as the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) invest in regional projects across Europe and have assisted several countries.

International trade agreements

Agreements such as the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy has affected farmers across Europe, outlining which crops can be grown and how farmers may grow them. It has allowed farmers to manage the profitability of their harvest better and therefore improve rural areas surrounding the farms.

Historic influences

Historic influences also have as much of an impact on a place as current national and international influences. The past connects to the present as many of these influences are felt today and affect many of the other influences. There are four main influences:

  • Perception and Image

  • Influence on Identity

  • Historic Features

  • Historic Ethnic Composition

Perception and image

Influences on the perception of a place can be very important. Media like TV shows or movies can draw more or fewer tourists depending on how the place is shown and can create stereotypes or conventions that can shape a person’s perception of a place either positively or negatively.

Influence on identity

Certain areas and countries have stigmas and stereotypes placed on them, this can affect how people see others from there or themselves. It can be very harmful to the area and decrease migrations and tourism heavily.

On the other hand, good stereotypes of places can become part of somebody's identity. For example, Cambridge and Oxford have very positive representations and, as a result, people from these areas take some of these representations from them into their own identities.

Historic features

Street names, buildings, and even historic figures who have lived or been in an area can affect a place. It can majorly increase tourism with places like Stratford-upon-Avon still being recognised as where Shakespeare is from, bringing people to the area.

Past and Present Connections, Shakespeare's Home, StudySmarterThe birthplace of Shakespeare, Stratford-Upon-Avon, Wikimedia commons

Historic ethnic composition

Areas that had a high influx of immigrants in the past have seen their culture develop greatly in modern times. Not only does the multi-cultural influence attract more migrants of the same nationality or ethnicity, but it also increases the multi-culturalism of the area.

Past and Present Connections - Key takeaways

  • Past and Present connections are influences that affect an area in many ways. There are four national and regional influences:
    • Transport and infrastructure
    • Politics
    • Nearby urban areas
    • Regional governance.
  • There are six international and global influences
    • Global tourism opportunities and international airports, twinning, TNCs and global retailers, migration, EU, international trade agreements.
  • There are four historical influences:
    • Perception and image
    • Influence on identity
    • Historic features
    • Historic ethnic composition.
  • Past, present, and future are connected because all of these influences are connected and will continue to have an impact on an area.

Frequently Asked Questions about Past and Present Connections

The impact of historical influences is still felt today and affects many other influences.

The past affects the present and the future and many current influences will also affect the future.

They have a wide range of impacts with many at different scales of effect and varying in severity.

Final Past and Present Connections Quiz

Question

How many national and regional influences are there?

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Answer

Four. Transport and infrastructure, politics, nearby urban areas, regional governance.

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How many international and global influences are there?

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Answer

6.  Global tourism opportunities and international airports, twinning, TNCs and global retailers, migration, EU, international trade agreements.

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Question

How many historic influences are there?

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Answer

4. Perception and image, influence on identity, historic features, historic ethnic composition.

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Question

How do nearby shopping areas affect an area?

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Answer

It can bring in more migrants looking for leisure or a job.

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How do politics affect an area?

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Answer

It can affect a lot but impacts to national industries are usually severe changes.

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Is the EU a national, global or historic influence?

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Answer

Global.

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Question

Are perception and image a national, global or historical influence?

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Answer

Historic.

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Question

Which of the following is not a historical influence? Historic features, influence on identity or migration?


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Answer

Migration.

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Question

True or false? Transport and infrastructure are a national and regional influence.


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Answer

True.

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True or false? There are five global and international influences.

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Answer

False, there are six.

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Question

Which national and regional influence is missing? Nearby urban areas, regional governance, transport and infrastructure.


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Answer

Politics.

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Question

Give the name of an international trade agreement that assisted farmers across Europe.

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Answer

EU Common Agricultural Policy.

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True or false? Migration affects an area by influencing what projects are built there, by working with councils.

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Answer

False, that is regional governance.

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Question

Which is not a global influence? Twinning, migration, EU, politics.

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Answer

Politics, as it is a regional and national influence.

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Question

Define twinning.

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Answer

An arrangement formed between two areas that cause intercultural understanding.

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Question

Are global retailers and TNCs improving the variety of shops on a high street?

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Answer

No, they are decreasing variety, turning high streets into ‘clone high streets’.

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Question

Can perception and image only make a place look better?

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Answer

No, it can have a negative impact on how an area is seen.

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Question

Name three national and regional influences.

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Answer

Transport and infrastructure, politics, nearby urban areas and regional governance.

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Question

Which places are usually affected by global tourism opportunities and international airports?

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Answer

Capital cities and islands.

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Question

 Does the EU have any agreements or funds that could help multiple countries?


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Answer

Yes, such as the ERDF or the Common Agricultural Policy.

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