Log In Start studying!
StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.
4.8 • +11k Ratings
More than 3 Million Downloads
Free
|
|

Tropical Storm Management

Tropical Storm Management

Suppose you live in a country with tropical storms. In that case, you may have experienced receiving a text on your phone of emergency alert warnings telling you a storm is on its way or hearing sirens in the street signalling citizens not to go out during the storms. Although, as humans, we are at the mercy of natural hazards and can't control the weather, the best we can do is to prepare for tropical storms. Receiving those texts and hearing those sirens are a part of tropical storm management. Let's look into some strategies used in tropical storm management to stop lives and homes from being lost.

The importance of tropical storm management

A tropical storm has different strengths, so they can be deadly depending on their power. Tropical storm management is vital because it can prepare people for those tropical storms and lead to protecting personal property and saving lives.

Tropical storm management is about the strategies used to reduce the risk of a tropical storm.

There are four main ways to manage tropical storms. They are the following strategies: preparation, planning, protection, and prediction. Let's look at them in more detail.

Preparation of tropical storm management

Preparation comes from governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), like the Red Cross, to educate people on how to prepare and respond to a tropical storm. This includes advising people on what to include in a survival kit, confirming where the evacuation points are and how to evacuate safely. Things to think about when creating a survival kit are that the water and the power supply may be cut off. There should be emergency food and water, emergency medicine, emergency power, and personal documents such as medical documents and passports. Survival kits can help people to survive those trapped and waiting for help. As a tropical storm can gain energy rapidly, it is essential to know how to respond quickly accordingly to the alerts, which can be picked up through TV, radio, online, and in some countries, through mobile phone messages and sirens. The quicker people react to tropical storms, the more likely they are to survive.

Tropical Storm Management Emergency alert from National Weather Service StudySmarterFig. 1 - Emergency Alert from the National Weather Service in the US

In the US, the National Weather Service has two kinds of alerts for hurricanes. There is a hurricane watch alert and a hurricane warning alert. A hurricane watch alert indicates that there is a possibility of a hurricane in the area. They are announced by experts 48 hours before the tropical storm force winds start. A hurricane warning alert implies that the hurricane is expected and issues warnings 36 hours before the tropical storm force winds start. These are communicated through the TV, radio, and online.

Remember: preparation is the most important factor in reducing the effects of tropical storms.

Planning in tropical storm management

Planning tropical storm management stems from considering the possible effects of a tropical storm at the point of urban planning.

Urban planning is designing and developing urban areas to meet the community's needs.

For example, building homes and businesses away from areas of risk such as the coast. This would reduce the number of people at risk and the risk of buildings being destroyed. Planning on a scale of city or country would involve planning evacuation areas and routes, so they can facilitate everybody. Also, to train emergency services to react to the damage that the tropical storm may cause.

Protection in tropical storm management

Structural elements and materials can be used to design protected buildings, storm shelters, and infrastructure. Materials like reinforced concrete can help create secure roofs; building houses on stilts can stop the house from getting ruined by floods; storm shelters are also built with reinforced concrete, off-ground with deep-pile concrete pillars that absorb the energy of the storm's force, and have metal shutters over the windows. Building infrastructure such as levees and sea walls along the coast can protect the coastline from floods that could be caused by tropical storms.

Tropical Storm Management Levee along the Mississippi River in Gretna Louisiana StudySmarterFig. 2 - Levee along the Mississippi River in Gretna, Louisiana

Predictions and monitoring in tropical storm management

Previously, tropical storms were predicted through the state of the sea surface, changes in the weather, and reports from affected areas. This predicting method would leave little time for evacuating and preparing for tropical storms. However, observation networks such as weather satellites in the 1960s improved. Predictions of a tropical storm can be made from satellite data and radar tracking the movement of tropical storms and sensing the changes in the atmosphere. There are also aircraft equipped to find out what is happening closer to the affected area. Computer forecast models are also used, which use the information of past storms and atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture of the area. Prediction and monitoring will help people to start evacuating earlier and protect their homes and businesses from the strong winds and flooding.

Monitoring and prediction systems can be expensive, and more economically developed countries are likely to have the money to invest in the systems compared to less economically developed countries. You can find out more about the differences below.

What are the different measures taken in tropical storm management?

Although the four main strategies of preparation, planning, protection, and prediction are used in all the countries that face the damage of tropical storms, there is a difference in how the country can deal with the storm depending on how economically developed the country is. Let's look at case studies of MEDCs (more economically developed countries) and LEDCs (less economically developed countries) and how tropical storm management differed due to economic reasons.

Case study of MEDC Hurricane Floyd in the US

Hurricane Floyd formed in the Gulf of Mexico before hitting the Bahamas and the eastern coast of the US in September 1999. A prediction from the National Hurricane Center of a category 4 hurricane in Florida led to evacuations of over one million people. When the storm began moving north, a total of 2.6 million people were evacuated from the coastal areas of Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas. The evacuations were well prepared, with the army helping and the provision of evacuation shelters. The government teaches people to prepare for hurricanes by planning ahead by having an emergency supply kit, identifying the nearest shelters, and how to get to them. Buildings in areas that could be affected are constructed to withstand high winds, floods, and storm surges. The US government relies on internal aid from its own government. For Hurricane Floyd, £1.4 billion were given, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency gave £800 million. Hurricane Floyd claimed the lives of 79 people.

Tropical Storm Management Satellite image of Hurricane Floyd StudySmarterFig. 3 - Satellite image of Hurricane Floyd

Case study of LEDCs Orissa Cyclone in Bangladesh

Orissa Cyclone formed in the bay of Bengal before hitting Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India in October 1999. The Indian government saw that the cyclone was developing but struggled to alert people because of the poor access to radios, low literacy rates, and isolated villages. There were only 27 shelters for a region where 20 million people lived. There were no building codes, so many buildings were not strong enough for cyclones. The reaction to the disaster was slow, and relief efforts began three days after the cyclone had left. After 5 days, the coordination centre was staffed with only 6 people, two telephones and a fax machine. Fishermen are now given radios to keep in contact with each other about potential future cyclones. The Indian government tried to react to the situation alone at first and turned down the United Nations offer for an international fundraiser; however other countries such as Canada, the US, Britain, and Germany sent donations, and by March, $20.8 million were pledged. It is reported that Orissa Cyclone has claimed over 10,000 lives, however it is more likely that it is 30,000.

Tropical Storm Management - Key takeaways

  • Tropical storm management can save lives and protect personal property by preparing people in advance against the dangers of tropical storms.
  • Preparation is needed through preparing survival kits, planning evacuation routes, and knowing where to evacuate.
  • Planning on a larger scale of cities and towns is vital to reduce the risk of buildings being destroyed by building them away from areas such as the coast and ensure there are enough evacuation areas and safe evacuation routes.
  • Protection through constructing houses, storm shelters, and infrastructure that can resist tropical storms, such as using reinforced concrete, securing roofs, and having metal shutters over the windows.
  • Satellite and aircraft data, radar tracking and computer forecast models can help in predicting and monitoring tropical storms.
  • Comparing case studies of an MEDC and an LEDC facing a tropical storm, it is possible to see that tropical storm management can be expensive, and the countries that cannot invest in equipment and education suffer.

References

  1. Fig. 1 - Emergency Alert from the National Weather Service in the US (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hurricane_Lane_warning_(29254459177).jpg) by Richard Unten (https://www.flickr.com/people/18923035@N00) Licensed by CC-BY-2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)
  2. Fig. 2 - Levee along the Mississippi at Gretna, Louisiana (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GretnaLevee.jpg) by Infrogmation (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Infrogmation) Licensed by CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en)

Frequently Asked Questions about Tropical Storm Management

Tropical storms are managed through the following four strategies: preparation, planning, protection, and prediction.

Tropical storms can be predicted through satellite data and by radar tracking the tropical storms' movement and sensing the atmosphere changes. There are also computer forecast models comparing information on past storms and the area's atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture.

You can protect people from a tropical storm by building houses, storm shelters, and infrastructure that can resist tropical storms, such as using reinforced concrete, securing roofs, and having metal shutters over the windows.

The most important factor in reducing the effects of tropical storms is preparing in advance for the potential dangers that could be created by the tropical storm.

Precautions such as creating building codes for buildings so they would be strong enough for cyclones, and building a network for communication between people who are likely to notice the tropical storms and in danger, for example, fishermen through radios, can reduce the impact of tropical cyclones.

Final Tropical Storm Management Quiz

Question

Tropical storm management is about strategies used to reduce the _____ of a _____ storm. 

Show answer

Answer

risk, tropical

Show question

Question

Which strategy does NOT help to manage a tropical storm? 

Show answer

Answer

Embracing

Show question

Question

_____ and _____ educate people on how to prepare and respond to tropical storms.

Show answer

Answer

Governments, NGOs

Show question

Question

Which of the following are not necessary for a survival kit?

Show answer

Answer

Television

Show question

Question

TRUE or FALSE: Building homes and businesses away from risk areas, such as the coast, can reduce the number of people at risk.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

Planning on a scale of city or country would involve planning _____ areas and _____ so that they can facilitate everybody.

Show answer

Answer

evacuation, routes

Show question

Question

Which of the below do NOT help a house against tropical storms?

Show answer

Answer

Plaster walls

Show question

Question

Which of the following infrastructures do NOT help with tropical storms?

Show answer

Answer

Below sea level cycle paths

Show question

Question

Which of the below is not used to predict tropical storms?

Show answer

Answer

Architectural models

Show question

Question

When comparing MEDCs and LEDCs, what is the problem with tropical storm management?

Show answer

Answer

There is too much conflict between the two. 

Show question

Question

Which statements are FALSE?

Show answer

Answer

Tropical storm management is vital because it can prepare people for those tropical storms and lead to protecting personal property and saving lives.

Show question

Question

TRUE or FALSE: Observation networks such as weather satellites in the 1970s improved.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

TRUE or FALSE: Hurricane Floyd is an example that shows that an MEDC can better handle a tropical storm.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

Which statements are TRUE?

Show answer

Answer

Tropical storm management is about the strategies used to reduce the risk of a tropical storm. 

Show question

Question

TRUE or FALSE: Computer forecast models are used, which use the information of past storms and atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture of the area. 

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

60%

of the users don't pass the Tropical Storm Management quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

Start Quiz

Discover the right content for your subjects

No need to cheat if you have everything you need to succeed! Packed into one app!

Study Plan

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Quizzes

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Flashcards

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Notes

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Study Sets

Have all your study materials in one place.

Documents

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Study Analytics

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Weekly Goals

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Smart Reminders

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Rewards

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Magic Marker

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Smart Formatting

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.