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# Migration and Identity

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If you look around your class, you may well find your peers to be of diverse backgrounds. They might speak different languages when at home, and dress visibly differently even at school. For example, female students with headscarves, or boys with turbans.

This diversity is a marker of two separate phenomena, migration and identity. We will study how they are linked below.

## How are migration and identity related to each other?

Migration is defined as the movement of a person or group of people from one area to another. It is generally categorised by the locations between which the migration takes place, as well as the cause or motive behind the migration.

Identity can be defined as the degree to which a particular person associates themselves with a particular group or characteristic. This can relate to national, religious, ethnic identity, etc. The identity of an individual will often alter the individual perception of a particular area, which is a contributing factor to migration. Older generations who have lived in a particular area for a long time often find themselves attached to it and identify with it. Younger generations however often lack this attachment and are therefore far more likely to migrate.

## Migration by spatial scale

We classify migration by spatial scale broadly into two categories.

This is the movement of a person or people from one area to another, within the same country or geographical region. The most common type of movement in this category is rural-to-urban migration.

This is the movement of a person or people from one nation or political state to another. The most common migration in this category is the economic movement of people from less affluent nations to more affluent ones.

## Causes of migration

The causes of migration are categorised by the type of motives or lack thereof. Migrations that are voluntary can be explained by push and pull factors.

### Migration by motive

We classify these broadly into two categories.

#### Forced migration

This is the movement of a person or people from one area to another against the person's will. This could be as a result of a threat to their freedom, e.g. due to persecution based on religion, ethnicity, political affiliation, etc; or environmental threats such as drought, flood, threats to food and water sources, etc. When a person has successfully migrated to another nation as a result of the aforementioned causes they are a refugee. If they are still seeking to migrate they are referred to as asylum seekers.

This is the voluntary migration of a person or people for reasons of work and/or improved quality of life. The pattern of migration, in this case, is generally from less economically affluent countries to more economically affluent countries and is often regional, e.g. from Mexico and other Latin American countries to the USA, or the movement of eastern European nationals to western European countries such as UK or Germany. On a national scale, this type of migration often takes the form of rural-to-urban migration.

Push factors motivate an individual or group of people to migrate from a particular location. Pull factors are those which motivate an individual or group to migrate to a particular location. They may be viewed as negative and positive factors respectively.

Some examples of 'push' factors:

• High unemployment, which causes economic struggles.

• Low environmental quality caused by pollution, and other hazardous environments.

• War, persecution, and civil unrest.

Some examples of 'pull' factors:

• Job opportunities with higher wages and safer working conditions.

• Higher environmental quality, e.g. clean air, water, sanitation, etc.

• Inclusive societies where there is less persecution for beliefs or political affiliations.

• High-quality public services, e.g. high standards of education, healthcare and security.

#### Push/pull factors case study (Poland)

Poland endured a long period of poor economic and social conditions resulting from the Second World War, and then Soviet control through puppet governments in the Cold War era. Together with seven other eastern European countries, it finally joined the European Union in 2004, allowing Polish citizens the freedom of movement to more economically affluent western European nations. This directly led to more than 800,000 Poles immigrating to western European nations (mostly UK and Germany). While the majority of immigration from Poland occurred in the years immediately following 2004, there is still a Polish diaspora of about 20 million abroad, out of a total of about 38 million citizens.

 Push Factors (Poland) Pull Factors (UK) Youth unemployment:40 percent (2004)GDP per capita: $12,700 (2004)Lack of job opportunities in Poland UK unemployment: 5.1 percent (2004)GDP per capita:$30,900 (2004)Labour shortage in trade-based, skilled and semi-skilled areas in the UK: 607,900 (2004)

Push-pull factor analysis (2004) between Poland and the UK.

More recently, there are further push factors in Poland that relate to social rather than economic reasons. From allegations of election rigging to the systematic discrimination against the LGBTQI community [Fig 2], the ruling political party, PiS, has caused many young Poles to migrate and seek residency in more tolerant and accepting nations.

Poland's 'LGBT-free zones', 2020. Map data: Atlas of Hate.

## Consequences of migration

Consequences of migration are usually separated between the consequences for the country migrants are leaving behind, and the country that receives them.

 Consequences for countries receiving migrants Consequences for countries of origin of migrants Multiculturalism: nations with a high migrant population can benefit from otherwise inaccessible foods or services. As an example, New Malden in the UK has a high Korean population, giving it many unique Korean restaurants, cultural centres and supermarkets. Underpopulation and labour shortage. The decrease in population in a country where a large percentage of the population migrates can lead to labour shortages in many important areas e.g. healthcare or security. The private sector may also suffer which could lead to an overall decline in the economy of the nation. The following cycle may begin:Decreased workers -> labour shortage -> lower quality of services -> less wages earnt and therefore less economic circulation -> less taxation -> further decrease in public service quality -> increased outwards migration -> decreased workers… Increase in the labour force, where there may have been a shortage of labour, especially in public services, earlier. An influx of migrants can significantly increase the quality of service in the sector whose labour shortage is directly addressed. There may be a relaxed pressure on services if the rate of outwards migration is sufficiently low. The decreased number of people requiring access to public services could mean less stress on the services in question. As a result, the quality of the service for the remaining population may increase. Potential tensions may form in areas with a large migrant population which could cause conflict. This may have larger political consequences. A leading factor in Brexit being voted through was disquiet with the rate of immigration. Potential economic benefit due to remittance payments from citizens abroad. India has thus far received an estimated $86 billion in remittance payments since 2008. It is estimated that remittance payments make up an estimated 24 percent of the economy in El Salvador (source: worldbank.org). ## Nation-states and sovereignty Nation-states are defined as independent nations that are sovereign, often with an organised government with the right to make laws and regulations without the interference of other collective bodies or organisations. Sovereignty is defined as the legal right to govern a physical territory. We may say that nation-states are formed by unity at some scale. However, every state will still have variations in ethnic, cultural, and linguistic unity as a result of their population changes, the role of migration, and the populations’ identity. These factors together with historical context and physical geography will often determine a nation’s borders. Remember, national borders can be, and often are disputed. We don’t always have a consensus as to the position of the country's borders, and the reasons behind the proposed borders. The concepts of sovereignty and ethnic, cultural, and linguistic identities are influential in the degree to which nationalism (an extreme form of patriotism) arises. Nationalism was vital to the development of empires such as the Roman Empire. This created conflict when other nations became parts of larger empires, often in the context of colonialism, as with the British Raj in India. ## Migration and Identity - Key takeaways • Migration can be categorised by two different standards, intentionality and spatial scale. • Migration could come about as a result of economic incentives, or the force of the societal and/or political powers in the nation being left behind. • We can identify the reasons behind migration through a push/pull factor analysis. • Migration has varying consequences for both nations affected by migration, i.e., the nation being migrated from, and the one being migrated to. Images Atlas of Hate https://atlasnienawisci.pl/ ## Frequently Asked Questions about Migration and Identity A form of national migration from a rural area like a village with a low population density, to an urban area, typically a densely-populated city. • Migration arising from persecution based on religion e.g. Uighur population in China. • Persecution based on political affiliation, e.g. 1956 Hungarian revolution and large scale migration thereafter to Austria. • Environmental factors e.g. migration from Maldives to India due to rising sea levels. A forced migrant is someone who was forced to migrate, or seek asylum, due to circumstances outside of their control or against their general volition. This could be due to their physical environment becoming uninhabitable, or persecution due to their ethnicity, religion, beliefs, etc. Migration is caused either by forced circumstances or push and pull factors. Those who are forced to leave their country, town, city, or other area of residence against their will, are considered asylum seekers or refugees. Migration could also occur in circumstances where a person or people are not forced to migrate, but choose to do so either because of economic incentives, or other personal wishes. Yes, migration has a considerable effect on human geography. It can have significant positive impacts for the destination country's economy. Migrants in UK contribute an average £2,300 more to public finances than an average UK result. Migration can also lead to changes in local identity, cause tensions in certain communities, and potentially reveal existing prejudices. It will also have a significant impact on political relations due to interdependence. ## Final Migration and Identity Quiz Question What are the two standards of categorisation of migration? Show answer Answer Intentionality, and spatial scale. Show question Question What are the two migration categories according to spatial scale? Show answer Answer International migration, and national, or intranational migration. Show question Question What are the two migration categories according to intentionality? Show answer Answer Forced migration, and economic, or incentivised migration. Show question Question What is a 'push' factor? Show answer Answer A factor that incentivises a person or people to migrate from a particular area. Show question Question What is a 'pull' factor? Show answer Answer A factor that incentivises a person or people to migrate to a particular area. Show question Question Name two 'push' factors that may have accounted for the large scale migration from Poland to the UK. Show answer Answer Youth unemployment was at 40 percent in 2004. GDP per capita was$12,700 over the same period, much lower than in the UK.

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Name two pull factors that may have accounted for the large-scale migration from Poland to the UK.

GDP per capita in the UK was \$30,900 in 2004. Labour shortage in trade-based, skilled, and semi-skilled areas amounted to 607,900 vacancies in the UK in the same period.

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Name two positive consequence of inwards migration.

Increased variety of services that will likely be unique to the area, e.g. Korean restaurants in New Malden. New migrants are also a potential solution to the labour shortage in particular industries.

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Name a negative consequence of inwards migration.

There is potential for conflict due to prejudice.

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Name a positive consequence of outwards migration.

Potential less stress on public services, increasing their quality for the remaining population.

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Name two negative consequences of outwards migration.

Labour shortage and economic halting.

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What is the definition of a failed state?

When political and/or economic structure becomes so weak that the government is no longer in control. This will result in what we call a 'failed state'. Such a failed state can no longer function.

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What are the characteristics of a failed state?

1. The government cannot project its authority over the people and the territory
2. It is unable to protect its boundaries, loss of territory
3. Erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions
4. The inability to provide public services
5. The inability to implement public policies
6. Civil liberties and human rights are no longer protected
7. The residents of a failed state will have no physical security and no stable political and economic systems in place
8. The inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community

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What are reasons for the failure of a state?

• predatory and corrupt government
• civil wars
• genocide
• ethnic violence

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What other contributing factors can lead to failed state?

• insurgency
• high crime rates
• overly bureaucratic processes
• judicial incompetence
• military interference in politics

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What is the Fragile States Index?

The FSI is an index that is released every year by the Fund For Peace organisation showing the fragility of 179 countries. These fragilities are based on 12 metrics, each worth 10 points. The higher the score, the worse off a country is.

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What are the 12 metrics of the Fragile States Index?

1. Security Apparatus
2. Factionalised Elites
3. Group Grievance
4. Economic Decline
5. Uneven Economic Development
6. Human Flight and Brain Drain
7. State Legitimacy
8. Public Services
9. Human Rights and the Rule of Law
10. Demographic Pressures
11. Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons
12. External Intervention

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Name a few countries that are considered the worst failed states over the last few years?

• Eritrea
• Syria
• Zimbabwe
• Congo

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What are the 9 failed states of 2020?

1. Yemen
2. Somalia
3. South Sudan
4. Syria
5. Democratic Republic of Congo
6. Central African Republic
8. Sudan
9. Afghanistan

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True or False: there is a specific indicator, score or rank that defines the moment when a fragile state becomes a failed state?

False

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What do we need to remember about a country's status?

That the status of any country can change at any moment, for better or worse.

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What is some of the criticism that the Failed States Index has faced?

• The Human Development Index to reach the final score is not included. Instead, it focuses on institutions to measure what are often also considered human aspects for development

• FSI draws parallels between the fragility of a state with underdevelopment. This leads to the assumption that (economic) underdevelopment leads to fragility and therefore leading to the assumption that a developed state is stable or sustainable

• FSI measures the failure (or success) of a state without including progresses made outside of the 12 metrics. Therefore important measures such as child mortality rates and access to clean water, are not taken into account

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What is a fragile state?

Apart from failed states, there are also fragile states, sometimes also called 'vulnerable states'. States that are classified as fragile would need to undertake action otherwise they will become a failed state.

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What is the definition of sovereignty?

Sovereignty is a political concept that refers to a dominant power or supreme authority. A sovereign, whichever type it is, wields power without limitations. They have the power to make laws, and a sovereign power lies beyond the powers of others to interfere

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What is an example of sovereignty?

The power of a king to rule his people.

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As of 2021, how many sovereign states are there?

There are 206 total states, broken down into 193 member states, 2 observer states, 11 classified as 'other' states

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How many undisputed sovereignties are there?

191

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How many disputed sovereignties are there?

15

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What is national sovereignty?

National Sovereignty is the full right and power of a nation to govern itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. A national sovereignty has complete control over its own territory

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What is a simple example of national sovereignty?

The fact that in the UK, they want to drive on the left-hand side of the road. That is their decision and they do not have to ask another country or nation permission to do so

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What is the definition of state sovereignty?

A sovereign state is when a political entity is represented by 1 centralised government that has supreme authority over a geographic area

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What are the qualities of an official sovereign state?

• Space or territory that has internationally recognised boundaries
• People who live there on an ongoing basis
• Regulations governing foreign and domestic trade
• The ability to issue legal tender that is recognised across boundaries
• An internationally recognised government that provides public services and police powers and has the right to make treaties, wage war, and take other actions on behalf of its people
• Sovereignty, meaning that no other state should have power over the country's territory
• Normally, a sovereign state is independent

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What is the Westphalian sovereignty?

The Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law that each state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory. The principle underlies the modern international system of sovereign states and it is spelled out in the United Nations Charter

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What is external sovereignty?

External sovereignty concerns the relationship between sovereign power and other states.

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External sovereignty is used to describe which 2 elements?

1. Regardless of status, for example wealthy or poor, every sovereign state is legally equal in international law. The United Nations General Assembly is where each state has 1 vote, regardless of the power or lack of power of a sovereign state

2. In order for a state to achieve full external sovereignty, it must be recognised as a fellow sovereign state by enough other members withing the international system, especially the most powerful states

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What is an example of an unrecognised sovereign state?

The apartheid regime in South Africa set up a number of 'states' within its territory. It had all the attributes of a sovereignty, however it was only recognised by South Africa and the other states that were set up. Other states refused to acknowledge and recognise them as an equal, therefore failing to acquire the key attribute of a state

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What is internal sovereignty?

Internal sovereignty is the relationship between sovereign power and the political community.

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Internal sovereignty consists of which 2 elements?

1. legal sovereignty: covers the right of a state to be the only law-making body for the population that inhabits the territory in question. Sovereignty does not recognise any superior or even equal in the legal right to make laws for a territory. That means that as soon as either one occurs, it is no longer a sovereignty. All the citizens and people residing in a state's territory must abide by the laws of that state, and that state alone

2. Practical sovereignty: in practice, a state sovereignty can be undermined and even fatally weakened by internal revolt, brining with it horrendous consequences for its population. An example is the Lebanese state of the late 1970s/early 1980s. Legally it remained a sovereign state for its territory, but in practice it was reduced to just a few city blocks in Beirut, as the rest was in the hands of militias, and, later, Israeli and Syrian armed forces

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What challenges does state sovereignty face?

• The structure of international society
• The impact of globalisation
• The spread of weapons of mass destruction
• The growth of informal ties
• The rise of new international actors, such as Multi-National Corporations and terrorist organisations
• Neo-colonialism (sometimes also spelled as neocolonialism)

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What is individual sovereignty?

Another term for individual sovereignty is self-ownership. It is the concept of property in one's own person which is expressed as the moral or natural right of a person to have bodily integrity and be the exclusive controller of one's own body.

Simple terms: you own yourself and you have the right to express yourself

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What is popular sovereignty?

This a controversial political doctrine where all the people have a right to participate in government

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What is Parliamentary sovereignty?

This is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. Parliamentary sovereignty is a principle of the UK constitution, making Parliament the supreme legal authority in the UK which can create or end any law. Generally speaking, the courts cannot overrule its legislation

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What is a limit of Parliament sovereignty?

No Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change and in turn, Parliament can undo or change any laws that were passed by a previous Parliament. The fact that Parliament cannot bind its successors is a limit to the current Parliament

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What is Dicey's theory?

Dicey broke down the rule of law into 3 concepts, known as Dicey's theory:

1. No man could be lawfully punished by authorities unless they had violated the law which was established in an ordinary way and applied by an ordinary court
2. No man is above the law and everyone, whatever condition or rank, is subject to the ordinary laws of the land
3. The result of the ordinary law of the land is constitution

In very simple terms: the rule of law can be seen as the foundation of all other rights, and, without rights, nothing else works

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What is the definition of a nation?

a territory where all the people are led by the same government. The people within a nation can be the whole population or a group of people within the territory or country who share history, traditions, culture and/or language. Such a group of people do not have to have a country of their own

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What is the definition of a state?

a territory where all the people are led by the same government. The people within a nation can be the whole population or a group of people within the territory or country who share history, traditions, culture and/or language. Such a group of people do not have to have a country of their own

State = a nation or territory that is considered to be an organised political community under 1 government. It is worth noting that there is no undisputed definition of a state

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What is the definition of a nation-state?

It is a specific form of a sovereign state (a political entity on a territory) that governs a nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from successfully serving all its citizens. So, when a nation of people have a state or country of their own, it is called a nation-state. They are a self-governing state, but it can have various forms of government. In most cases, a nation-state is also called a sovereign state, but that is not always the case.

A nation-state is a more precise concept, as a country does not need to have a predominant ethnic group, which is needed to define a nation-state.

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What is worth noting about the definition of a nation-state?

some scholars do argue that a nation-state does not really exist. There is no real right or wrong answer here, as others do not agree with that statement and do argue that nation-states exist.

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Where did the idea of the nation-state originated?

With the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. It did not create nation-states but nation-states meet the criteria for its component states

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What are the 4 characteristics of a nation-state?

1. Sovereignty - the ability to make autonomous decisions for itself
2. Territory - a nation-state cannot be virtual, it needs to own land
3. Population - there must be real people living there that comprise the nation
4. Government - a nation-state is one with some level or organised government that takes care of its common affairs

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