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Regenerating Places

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Regenerating Places

Regeneration is a reaction to economic and social changes. Local, national, and global processes, such as the movement of people, capital, information, and resources, drive it. Some places can become economically wealthy because of the abundance of these factors, whilst other places are marginalised. Regeneration programmes take into account these economic inequalities.

A place is an area or location with specific physical characteristics depending on where it is on the rural-urban continuum. The continuum ranges from urban places modified by densely populated areas to rural landscapes which are moulded through farming, forestry, and mining. These places are also shaped by internal connections such as between people, employment, and housing and external connections like government policies and globalisation. The linkages built contribute to the characteristics of the place. This also connects the meaning of a place to individuals and groups of people, which in turn shapes the way people perceive, engage, and form attachments to certain places.

Through this article, we will touch upon the need for regeneration in certain places and the effectiveness of policies created to improve the quality of life for local people.

What are the types of economies?

Economic activity can be classified into sectors and types of employment. Each sector has a different value to a government, produces products or services, and presents employees with various opportunities and risks. There are different economic activities according to variations in social factors such as health, life expectancy, and education levels that determine a person's ability to work.

There are four types of economic sectors:

  • Primary (agriculture base). This sector usually includes the collection of raw materials or the production of essential goods. It tends to be low-paid manual work.
  • Secondary (manufacturing base). This sector is the processing of raw materials, commonly for commercial goods and machinery.
  • Tertiary (service base). This sector covers everything from education and selling products to managing businesses.
  • Quaternary (information base). This sector is relatively new. It includes all technology-based employment such as high-tech scientific research, IT, and computer programming.

There are various types of employment, for example:

  • Part-time/ full time
  • Temporary/ permanent
  • Employed/self-employed

What is the function of places?

There are different functions of a location which can influence employment opportunities, businesses, industry, and the built environment. When places develop, functional and demographic characteristics change. These functions include:

  • Administrative: Places where government officials make decisions on how to organise the infrastructure and economic activity of surrounding areas.
  • Commercial: These areas are locations of strong business influence. TNCs may have bases here as well as small to large-scale businesses.
  • Retail: This is the main source of income for the local population. For example, markets, shopping centres, and independent shops.
  • Industrial: An area where the industry is predominant and affects its reputation. For example, Sheffield's steel industry during the Industrial Revolution.

Regenerating Places Monument dedicated to women workers from world wars StudySmarterFig. 1 - A monument in Sheffield dedicated to the women who worked as metal workers during the two world wars.

Lived experiences and attachment

The lived experience involves the personal history of living in a certain place. It varies across persons and can impact people's engagement with a place. This variation in the level of community engagement can be measured through local and national election attendance, the number of community activities and the number of developed and supported local community groups. Deprived areas have weaker and poorly integrated communities which can be managed by creating social groups and encouraging members to join.

Attachment is the bond between an individual and a community or a place. Factors such as ethnicity and shared culture, gender, stage of life, length of residence, or memories can affect this relationship.

What is the definition of regeneration?

Regeneration is the long-term upgrading and redevelopment of existing places for economic and social change. Its objective is to create a balance and eradicate social and economic inequalities. This can be done through effective strategies executed by the government and NGOs. When an area is regenerated, business opportunities arise. This can improve social facilities and the overall quality of life and well-being.

Urban and rural regeneration strategies include:

  • Retail-led plans: They create business and job opportunities.
  • Tourism: It brings money into the area and provides a flow of culture and positive media attention.
  • Leisure and sport: They promote community integration and social well-being.

The economic impacts of regeneration

The economic impact is one of the driving factors for regeneration. This can be seen on a larger scale when a government utilises migration to help with growth and investment. On a smaller scale, local governments also strive to create economic growth through regeneration. However, this can conflict with local interest groups as seen with the regeneration of East London for the London Olympics. Lastly, the success of regeneration is measured with economic factors such as income, poverty, and employment.

Migration and capital

In the UK, the government makes decisions about international migration, as it can have a significant impact on the potential for growth and investment. The net migration to the UK was around 270,000 people in 2019.¹ Net migration is calculated by subtracting the number of immigrants from the emigrants.

  • Some positive economic effects of migrants are economic growth and diversity. Migrants can also help fill skill shortages works, such as doctors or nurses for the NHS and labourers in construction and farming. Many migrants are students who may stay after their studies to then go on to pay tax revenues.
  • The negative economic effects of migrants can be that they put pressure on local services such as schools, housing, and hospitals.

Local government policies

Local governments aim to make areas attractive for inward investment by creating a sympathetic business environment. Control of building and planning and local interest groups are key tools for them.

Measuring the success of regeneration

The success of regeneration is assessed with the following factors:

Social progress is also measured by looking at the reduction in inequalities between and within areas. Some indicators of the reduction of inequalities are life expectancy improvements, population growth, and reductions in health deprivation.

Regeneration is most successful when it leads to improvements in the living environment, which in turn leads to improved social and economic security. These improvements can be monitored through reductions in pollution levels and the number of abandoned and derelict warehouses and land.

Economic regeneration example

  • Local governments build new roads and transport infrastructure to make certain places attractive for businesses and workers. For example, the Metrolink in Manchester was expanded to the airport, which could lead to the area being more attractive.
  • Local interest groups such as the Chamber of Commerce, local preservation societies, and trade unions support a range of interests and perspectives. However, there are conflicts between groups as interests differ. Some would prefer to preserve urban landscapes, whilst others seek to change them. For example, the London Olympics were criticized as regeneration in East London made it too expensive for locals to afford to house. Some local interest groups like Focus E15 and Boleyn 100 launched campaigns against the regeneration projects.

Regenerating Places - Key takeaways

  • Regeneration is a reaction to economic and social changes. These are driven by local, national, and global processes such as the movement of people, capital, information, and resources.
  • Economic activity can be classified into sectors and types of employment. The functions of places can be administrative, commercial, industrial, and retail.
  • Urban and rural regeneration strategies include retail-led plans, tourism, leisure, and sport.
  • Regeneration is most successful when it leads to improvements in the living environment, and in turn, this leads to improved social and economic security.

References

  1. Madeleine Sumption, Net Migration to the UK, The Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford, 2020.
  2. Fig. 1: Monument in Sheffield dedicated to the women who worked as metal workers during WWI and WWII (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Women_of_steel.jpg) by Artaxerxes100 (https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Artaxerxes100&action=edit&redlink=1) Licensed by CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en)

Frequently Asked Questions about Regenerating Places

Economic regeneration is important because it can strengthen the local economy of a place and tackle unemployment. 

Regenerating an area can improve social facilities and the overall quality of life and wellbeing in an area.

The economic impacts of regeneration are economic competitiveness and prosperity.

Economic regeneration is on a larger scale, the government utilising migration to help with growth and investment. On a smaller scale, local governments striving to create economic growth through regeneration.

Final Regenerating Places Quiz

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How can economic activity be classified?

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Economic activity can be classified into sectors and types of employment.

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What are the four sectors of economic activity?


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Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

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What is the primary economic sector?


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The primary sector usually includes the collecting of raw materials or the production of essential goods. It tends to be low-paid manual work.

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What is the quaternary economic sector?


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The quaternary sector is everything related to technology-based employment such as high-tech scientific research, IT, and computer programming.

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Give an example of the types of employment.


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Part-time/ full-time, temporary/ permanent, employed/ self-employed.

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What is the function of a place?


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There are different functions of a location, which can influence employment opportunities, businesses, industry, and the built environment. When places develop, their function and demographic characteristics change.

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Give examples of some functions of places.


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Administrative, commercial, retail, industrial.

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What is the function of administrative places?


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Administrative places are where decisions for how to organise the infrastructure and economic activity of surrounding areas are made.

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What is the function of commercial places?


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These areas are locations of strong business influence. TNCs may have bases here as well as small to large-scale businesses.

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What is the function of industrial places?


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An area where industry is predominant and affects its reputation. For example, Sheffield's steel industry during the Industrial Revolution.

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What is a lived experience?


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A lived experience involves the personal history of living in a certain place. It varies across persons and can impact people's engagement with a place.

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What is attachment?


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Attachment is the bond between an individual and a community or place. Factors such as ethnicity and shared culture, gender, stage of life, length of residence, and memories can affect this relationship.

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What is regeneration?

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Regeneration is the long-term upgrading and redevelopment of existing places for economic and social change.

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What are the urban and rural regeneration strategies?


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Retail-led plans, tourism, leisure and sport.

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How is the success of regeneration assessed?


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By observing and measuring income, poverty, and employment.

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What is the definition of regeneration?

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Regeneration is the long-term upgrading of existing urban, rural, industrial and commercial areas to bring about social and economic change.

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What are public-private partnerships?

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This is when regeneration projects involving infrastructure are generally expensive so the government provides most of the capital needed and the private company would manage the plans.

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What kind of government departments are involved in infrastructure regeneration?

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Government departments such as:

-Local councils

-Department for Culture, Media and Sport

-Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

-UK Trade and Investment

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What are benefits of regeneration through infrastructure?

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The benefits of regeneration through infrastructure would be the high volume of jobs produced due to construction. Also improving transport links can lead to improved trade and migration links and help with increasing economic productivity.

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What are the risks of regeneration through infrastructure?

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The risks of regeneration through infrastructure would be the high costs which could change during the construction because of inflation and changing circumstances. Another risk would be the environmental risks from the amount of resources used such as concrete which produce large amounts of CO2.

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Give an example of infrastructure projects in the UK.

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-The expansion of Heathrow airport = A project to expand to build a third runway is expected to cost under 20 billion pounds and potentially create 70,000 jobs. However there has been objection from local residences, MPs and environmental NGOs concerned about the pollution and increased traffic of Heathrow airport.¹

-High Speed 2= A project to connect London to Wigan with a high speed railway line. This could reduce time of travel between the North and the South. It is also expected to support 34,000 jobs in total.² 

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Why is regeneration through housing needed in the UK?

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In the UK, housing is an important strategy of regeneration as the population continues to grow, the demand for houses increase beyond what is supplied. Also with the lack of social and affordable housing, there are unequal opportunities for people to access housing. 

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What were the factors that caused the housing issues in the UK?

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-Lack of social housing = This stems from the large amount of social housing that was sold due to Margaret Thatcher's "Right to Buy" scheme to the occupants at a considerably less price than market value and there were not enough houses to replace them.

-Large number of empty and derelict properties = Private investors and private companies buy land to sit on for the price to increase or get the planning permission to build on it. 

-Overseas investors = The rising house prices in the UK and the investor visas have attracted overseas investors to buy properties which then are left empty or rented out.

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What are the benefit of housing construction?

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The benefits for housing construction is there is a need for housing as there is a major issue concerning lack of housing and that construction jobs are created during this process. 

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What are the risks of housing construction?

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The risks for housing constructions are investors regenerate brownfield sites than greenfield sites due to profitability so habitats are lost and natural environments damaged. There are problems also in limited projects concerning social housing and the houses being constructed aren't always affordable.

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Give an example of cultural regeneration.

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For example, regeneration of East London in the aim to hosting the Olympics and Paralympics, retail parks developed on disused industrial estates such as the Trafford Center in Manchester and rebranding of declining cities such as Belfast to attract tourism, investment and inward migration. 

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When is rural regeneration needed?

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Rural regeneration is needed when they experience decline in economy, outward migration and deindustrialisation.

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Give an example of rural regeneration.

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-The Eden Project in Cornwall = It is a botanical garden built in a disused clay pit. It aims to attract tourists and provide employment and economic opportunities for the local Cornish businesses.

-Bronte Country in West Yorkshire = It connects rural villages with English literature and heritage attracting national and international tourists. This benefits local businesses and Haworth uses the Victorian aesthetics to regenerate the areas by attracting tourists. 

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What role does the national government policy play in regeneration?

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National government policy plays a key role in regeneration as they make the decision for international migration and deregulation of capital markets which have major impacts on growth and direct and indirect investment.

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What is a negative effect of regeneration?

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Gentrification can be one of the negative effects of regeneration. House prices increase rapidly that price out the less affluent locals so that low-cost tenants are replaced by high-income tenants. This creates social division between the existing communities and the new residents. Neighborhoods can loose their identity as they start to look similar to other gentrified places.

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How can you measure regeneration?

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-Economic regeneration = This can be measured through the growth of local economy's size, comparison of employment rates, industrial productivity and before and after schemes. 

-Social improvements = Measurements include increase in life expectancy, decreased applicants for social housing, literacy rates and reductions in social tensions.

-Improvements of the living environment = This can be measured through improved air quality, abandoned land being utilised and increase in green, open spaces.

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Where is Croyde located?

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in North Devon, South West England. It lies in an Area of Outstanding National Beauty (AONB) and it faces the Atlantic Ocean

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When and where was Croyde first mentioned under the names Crideholde/Chrideholda?

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In 1086 in the Domesday Book

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What significant event happened in 1943?


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Nearby Saunton Sands, Braunton Burrows and Baggy Point were used by American soldiers to practise for the D-day landings.

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What happened here in the 1960s?


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As tension with the Soviet Union rose during the Cold War, a Royal Observer Corps (ROC) bunker was erected to watch over the British skies for any Soviet planes, bombs or missiles

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What is the public transport like in Croyde?


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Very limited. Closest train station is Barnstaple, 10mi/16km away. Only 1 bus an hour from Monday to Saturday, Only 1 bus every 2 hours on Sunday

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Why is limited public transport a disadvantage?

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It will bring more cars into the area, as people take their own car (or a hired car). This can negatively affect the environment (pollution), traffic (jams), and the availability of parking spaces.

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Are there any schools in Croyde?


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No

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What type of climate does Croyde have and what does that mean?


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It has an oceanic climate, which means mild summers, cool but cold winter and a relatively narrow annual temperature range

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What is the best time to visit Croyde and why?

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from June to October. During these months the temperature is nice, and there is limited rainfall

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What is Croyde beach renowned for?

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It is one of the best spots in the UK to surf

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What is important to remember when you go swimming at Croyde beach?


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Always swim between the flags as that is the safest spot

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When is the RNLI Lifeguard service available?

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From May to September, throughout the Easter weekend and all October weekends and October Half Term, from 10 am to 6 pm.

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When does a beach get a Blue Flag?

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When all the criteria are met for cleanliness, water quality, and facilities. A Blue Flag must be applied for first

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What is the Marine Conservation Society (MCS)?


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A charity organisation concerned with protecting the sea and its wildlife

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When did Croyde beach get awarded by the MCS?


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2022

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When are dogs allowed on the beach?


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Between 1 October and 30 April

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According to the official Croyde Bay guide, why should you camp at Croyde?


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  • Surfer's paradise
  • Picturesque village
  • Family-friendly seafront

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What types of accommodation is available at Croyde?

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  • camping
  • Bed & Breakfast (B&B)
  • Holiday parks
  • Hotels
  • Holiday letting agencies
  • Self-catering/holiday lets

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What is the name of the annual festival at Croyde and when is it held?


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The festival is called GoldCoast OceanFest and it is held the weekend closest to the summer solstice

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