StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.
4.8 • +11k Ratings
More than 3 Million Downloads
Lerne mit deinen Freunden und bleibe auf dem richtigen Kurs mit deinen persönlichen LernstatistikenJetzt kostenlos anmelden
Nie wieder prokastinieren mit unseren Lernerinnerungen.Jetzt kostenlos anmelden
During the invasion of Napoleon, the people of the Italian peninsula got a taste of French Revolution ideals, like liberty and nationalism, and realized that they were tired of being ruled over by far-away monarchs and their Ancien Régime.
Secret nationalistic societies popped up around the Italian city-states that banded together like-minded individuals who wanted to fight for a unified Italian state. It took almost half a century, but by the early 1860s, they were successful. The battle for a unified Italy was hard-won, and it took the collaboration of many individuals, groups, and countries.
Napoleon begins the invasion of northern Italy; claims those lands in the name of France.
The Napoleonic Wars come to an end. The Congress of Vienna meets to redraw the lines of Europe.
Revolts sprung up in Naples and Sardinia.
Pope Pius IX began his rule as pope.
Crimean War begins; ends three years later, in 1856.
Garibaldi lands troops in Sicily in the Expedition of a Thousand.
King Victor Emmanual II's Kingdom of Italy.
Austro-Prussian War; the Hapsburg lost their final piece of territory in the Italian peninsula.
Third Italian War of Independence.
Franco-Prussian War begins.
Franco-Prussian War ends; Italy gained the territories of Venetia and the Papal States.
Before unification in 1861, the Italian peninsula was made of individual city-states that saw a lot of changes during the Napoleonic Wars. The borders of the Italian city-states were in flux before and after Napoleon's invasion, in which the peninsula was reverted back to its original 18th-century borders, and during the unification of Italy.
For centuries, the Italian peninsula was a conglomeration of different city-states. Each had its own culture, a form of government, and non-Italian rulers. The path to unification was a long, windy, and bumpy road. The beginning of the unification movement, called the Risorgimento, is kicked off by Napoleon and ends with the savvy diplomat Count Camillo de Cavour.
The story of Italian unification begins when the French military leader Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the Austrians and Sardinians out of Northern and Central Italy in 1796. By the 19th century, the Italian peninsula became the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
Napoleon's army also brought ideas about government and society that had been at the center of the French Revolution:
These new ideologies inspired thoughts of unification and stirred nationalist sentiment among the popolo, or the Italian people, two of the most potent ideologies to grow from the French Revolution. In many cases, nationalists also pushed for liberal reform, as they believed that political equality and freedom should be the basis of a nation.
Unification refers to a single nation that would be controlled by a single government with representatives from their own country.
Nationalist sentiment supports the idea that there should be a single nation-state centered around a constitutional monarchy or republic; the nation should be based on a single common identity of the people.
Napoleon's reign came to an end in 1815. The big powers of Europe at the time, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, met at the Congress of Vienna in September 1814 with the goal of undoing the Napoleon debacle and hoped to squash any revolutionary ideas that circulated around the French Revolution.
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of European powers after the fall of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Congress of Vienna and the Vienna Settlement redistributed the conquered lands across Europe back to the pre-Napoleon monarchies. The leaders of Europe wanted to return stability to the continent. There was no going back after Napoleon's reign; many people had been exposed to French Revolutionary ideas, like republicanism and nationalism.
Secret societies, like the Carbonari and Giovane Italia, popped up all over Italy that spread the word about nationalism and a future unified Italian country that could be controlled by the people, rather than a sovereign or papal power. Thus, the Risorgimento movement was born.
Risorgimento is the Italian word for "resurgence" and the name of the fight for Italian unification during the 19th century.
Nationalists like Giuseppe Mazzini rose to the top of the movement and created the secret society Giovane Italia, or Young Italy. Giovane Italia was one of the early nationalist societies that influenced and encouraged idealists, most of whom were young men, to fight for Italian independence. Many influential leaders of the movement, like Giuseppe Garibaldi, were members of these societies.
The first round of revolts pushing for unification happened in January of 1848 when the people of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies led a revolt against King Ferdinand II. The revolts spread like wildfire and spread to northern Italy, where King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia declared war on the Austrian Empire in a doomed attempt to oust the Austrians. The Austrians defeated King Albert and his Italian army in what became known as the First Italian War of Independence.
While the Revolutions of 1848 and the First Italian War of Independence were unsuccessful in ousting the Austrians, a minor success was that many uneasy rulers decided to grant constitutions; even the Papal States responded by installing the short-lived Roman Republic.
After the failure, nationalists regrouped and focused their sights on the northern state of Piedmont. After King Charles Albert abdicated, his son King Victor Emmanual II and diplomat Count Camillo de Cavour became the main leaders of the movement. They focused on the idea of realpolitik and the French idea of government, which included civil liberties, elections, and less influence from the Catholic Church.
realpolitik refers to the idea that politics should be practical.
The Revolutions of 1848 did not only affect Italy. The year 1848 saw many revolts across Europe when the people of France, Austria, and Germany rose up against the oppressive regime of their rulers and demanded democracy.
One of the most ambitious efforts of the Risorgimento was the Expedition of the Thousand. The Expedition was led by Giuseppe Garibaldi on the ground, but other leaders like Camille de Cavour, Giuseppe Mazzini, and King Victor Emmanual II all had a hand in planning certain aspects.
Garibaldi led a group of young Northern Italian men, easily identified by their red shirts, that were often referred to as "redshirts."
The campaign began in May of 1860 when they set sail toward Sicily. The Redshirts quickly took the Sicilian city of Palermo and gathered Sicilians who were eager to defeat their Bourbon rulers. They continued up the peninsula and entered Naples, where the Bourbon rulers were defeated. Garibaldi combined conquered Naples and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
In 1861, The Kingdom of Italy was officially declared with King Victor Emmanual II on the throne. An Italian parliament was founded and created a government that represented all of the Italian peninsula, minus the Papal States (which included Rome) and Venice, which would not be a part of Italy until 1866 and 1871 respectively.
King Victor Emmanual II saw the war between the Austrians and Prussians, called the Austro-Prussian War, as an opportunity to annex the Papal States and Venice. He strategically allied Italy with Prussia and declared war on Austria. The Italian army pushed the Austrians out of Venice, and after a series of diplomatic decisions, Venice was given to the Kingdom of Italy as outlined in the Peace of Prague treaty.
Rome and the Papal States were added to the Kingdom of Italy in 1870 when the Italian army captured the Vatican. Finally, the unification of Italy was complete.
While many activists and Italian people played a role in furthering the unification movement, the four leaders below are considered the "fathers of the fatherland."
Giuseppe Mazzini, a Father of Unification, believed that this new Italy under unification should be the third version of Rome. Mazzini's view is considered to be more romantic.
Mazzini was exiled for his nationalist actions. Then helped found the group Young Italy, or Giovani Italia, in 1831 to:
Giuseppe Garibaldi believed in a democracy but worked with King Victor Emmanual II. His view of Italian Unification, under a democratic government rather than a constitutional monarchy, was never realized, but his role is nonetheless important.
Garibaldi was essential in assembling the Expedition of the Thousand and is credited with capturing Naples and Sicily for the new Kingdom of Italy. As well as being known as an incredibly effective military leader, he became a hero to those liberated from the absolutist rule.
Victor Emmanuel II was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia between the years of 1849 and 1861 and became the first King of unified Italy in 1861 as the head of a constitutional monarchy. He assisted Garibaldi's military expedition by leading the north into unification while Garibaldi did the same with the south.
He led Italy through the Third War of Italian Independence that successfully annexed Venice and the Papal States in 1871. King Victor Emmanual II also shaped the Italian government by moving the capital of Italy to Rome and relocating the Pope to Vatican City.
Count Camillo di Cavour was a believer in the theory of realpolitik. He was a strategic leader and proactive at creating alliances and situations that would benefit Italy. Cavour's application of realpolitik meant that he was willing to compromise and take actions that would benefit Italy as a whole.
Perhaps the most influential action he took was during the Crimean War, which broke out while he was Prime Minister in 1853. Cavour threw Italy's hat in the ring by creating an alliance with the British and French in 1855. This partnership with France allowed the constitutional monarchy under King Victor Emmanual II to assemble.
The unifications of Germany and of Italy were very similar; both happened under what is considered the Age of National Unification, which peaked in the latter half of the 19th century. It was during this time that many nations across Europe began to overthrow their respective ancien regime.
The Fathers of Italian Unification were Giuseppe Mazzini, Guiseppe Garibaldi, King Victor Emmannuel II, and Count Camillo de Cavour.
Italian unification was caused by the spread of ideas such as nationalism, liberalism, and democracy that inspired the Italian people to fight for their own unified country rather than being ruled by foreign monarchs.
The unification process was a part of a broader movement in Europe towards nationalism. The unification process included the Napoleonic Wars, the Revolutions of 1848, and the First and Second Wars of Italian Independence. All of these events moved unification forward.
The unification process was started by Italian nationalists.
Most of Italy was unified in 1861 when the Kingdom of Italy was formed. The unification process was complete in 1871 when the Papal States and Venice were added.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was the military leader who led the Expedition of the Thousand. This Expedition was successful in capturing Sicily and Naples from the Austrian Empire.
Before the Italian Unification, the Italian peninsula was made up of _______.
What is the Italian name for the unification movement?
True or False: the Italian peninsula was once a part of the Napoleonic Empire?
What ideas did French troops bring during the Napoleonic Wars?
They brought ideas that circulated during the French Revolution, such as political equality, nationalism, and reform.
What was the goal of leaders during the Congress of Vienna?
They wanted to ensure that Europe would remain stable and to reduce the possibility of revolutions that would threaten monarchical power.
What were the Carbonari and the Giovane Italia?
True or False: the Revolutions of 1848 were successful in establishing nationalist control
Who led the Expedition of the Thousand?
Who are the Fathers of Italian Unification? (select all that apply)
When was the entirety of the Italian Peninsula unified?
of the users don't pass the Unification of Italy quiz! Will you pass the quiz?Start Quiz
Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.
Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.
Create and find flashcards in record time.
Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.
Have all your study materials in one place.
Upload unlimited documents and save them online.
Identify your study strength and weaknesses.
Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.
Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.
Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.
Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.
Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.
Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.
Over 10 million students from across the world are already learning smarter.Get Started for Free