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Parallel Lines Theorem

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Parallel Lines Theorem

In Geometry, we have learned about the concept of lines. This fundamental concept is also seen everywhere in day-to-day life, like on the sides of doors and windows or any flat surface with a straight edge. Often, we see two similar parallel lines like a zebra crossing, rail tracks, or ladders.

Parallel lines are an important part of the study of quadrilaterals, such as in parallelograms, for example, which are four-sided figures that have parallel opposite sides. In this article, we will study theorems and postulates on parallel lines. But first, let us define parallel lines.

Coplanar straight lines which are equidistant from each other and never intersect at any points are known as parallel lines.

Parallel lines theorem, Parallel lines, StudySmarterParallel lines, StudySmarter Originals

Angles and parallel lines theorems

We can make statements regarding parallel lines based on the angles they form. In other words, we can prove that lines are parallel based on angles, and conversely, we can also prove angle congruency based on the existence of parallel lines. Before proceeding further, let's review some basic definitions and concepts regarding parallel lines. First, how can we tell the difference between parallel lines and those that are non-parallel?

Non-parallel lines are two or more lines that are not at equal distance and which are intersecting at some point or which will intersect at some point.

Parallel lines theorem, non-parallel lines, StudySmarterNon-parallel lines, StudySmarter Originals

You may be wondering, how do parallel lines relate to angles if they never intersect? The answer is transversals: Transversal lines play an important role in determining the angles associated with parallel lines.

A line passing through two lines at different points in the same plane is called a transversal line.

Parallel lines theorem, transversal lines, StudySmarterTransversal, Studysmarter Originals

Angle congruency based on parallel lines

First, we will take a look at the important statements to show angle congruency based on parallel lines.

Theorem 1: Alternate interior angle

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal, then the alternate interior angles formed are congruent (the same). Note that interior angles are those that are on in the inside of the parallel lines.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterAlternate interior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Angles formed on the opposite side of the transversal and are in the inner side of parallel lines are known as alternate angles.

Theorem 2: Alternate exterior angle

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal, then the exterior angles formed are congruent. Note that exterior angles are those that are on the inside of the parallel lines.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterAlternate exterior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 3: Consecutive interior angles

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal, then the consecutive interior angles formed on the same side are supplementary.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterConsecutive interior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Two angles are supplementary if the sum of the measure of both angles is180°.

Theorem 4: Consecutive exterior angles

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal, then the consecutive exterior angles formed on the same side are supplementary.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterConsecutive exterior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 5: Corresponding angles

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal, then the corresponding angles formed are congruent.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterCorresponding angles, StudySmarter Originals

Angles formed on the matching corners of parallel lines formed by the transversal are known as corresponding angles.

Proving parallel lines based on angles

Now we will take a look at the converse part of the above-mentioned theorems.

Theorem 6: Alternate interior angles converse

If two lines in a plane are cut by a transversal such that alternate interior angles formed are congruent, then the two lines are parallel.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterParallel lines with alternate interior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 7: Alternate exterior angles converse

If two lines in a plane are cut by a transversal such that alternate exterior angles formed are congruent, then the two lines are parallel.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterParallel lines with alternate exterior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 8: Consecutive interior angles converse

If two lines in a plane are cut by a transversal such that consecutive interior angles formed have a sum of180°, then the two lines are parallel.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterParallel lines with consecutive interior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 9: Consecutive exterior angles converse

If two lines in a plane are cut by a transversal such that consecutive exterior angles formed have a sum of 180°, then the two lines are parallel.

Theorems involving Parallel Lines consecutive exterior angles StudySmarterParallel lines with consecutive exterior angles, StudySmarter Originals

Theorem 10: Corresponding angles converse

If two lines in a plane are cut by a transversal such that corresponding angles formed are congruent, then the two lines are parallel.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterParallel lines with corresponding angles, StudySmarter Originals

Angles and parallel lines: Solved examples

Here we will take a look at some examples regarding the above-mentioned theorems.

In the given figure pq and mn. And m3 =102°.

Find (a) m5 (b) m6 (c) m14

Parallel lines theorem, parallel line angles, StudySmarterParallel lines with two transversals, StudySmarter Originals

Solution: (a) Here mn and line p works as a transversal for lines m and n. Now applying the alternate interior angles theorem, we get 35.

3=5 5=102°

(b) Similarly to (a), p is a transversal to parallel lines m and n. We use the consecutive interior angle theorem. So 3and 6 are supplementary.

3+6=180° 6=180°-3 6=180°-102° 6=78°

(c) We will use the 6 to calculate 14 as both lie on the same line n . Here 6 and 14 are on the parallel lines, p and q, respectively, and line n works as a transversal for both lines. So 6 and 14 form corresponding angles.

So from the corresponding angle theorem, both angles are congruent.

614 14 =78°

Now let's understand some additional important theorems regarding parallel lines and take a look at their proofs.

Perpendicular transversal theorem for parallel lines

The following statement presents the relationship between perpendicular transversal and parallel lines.

Theorem 11: Perpendicular transversal theorem

If two lines in a plane are cut by a perpendicular transversal, then both lines are parallel.

Quadrilaterals, perpendicular parallel line, StudySmarterParallel lines with perpendicular transversal, StudySmarter Originals

Proof: Here, transversal t is perpendicular to both line p and line q,i.e. tp, tq

Now we have to prove that p and q are parallel. As transversal t is perpendicular to p, it implies m1 = 90°. Similarly, as transversal t is perpendicular to q, we get m2 = 90°.

m1 =m2

Now, using the definition of congruence, which states that if the measure of two angles are equal then both the angles are congruent to each other, we get 1 2.

From the figure, we can clearly see that both the angles are corresponding angles. So by using theorem 10, the corresponding angles converse theorem, we can directly say that pq. That is, both line p and line q are parallel to each other. Hence, the theorem is proved.

Transitivity of parallel lines theorem

One of the other important statements of parallel lines uses the transitivity relation.

Theorem 11: Transitivity of parallel lines

If two lines in a plane are parallel to the same line, then all the lines are parallel to each other.

Quadrilaterals, transitive property parallel line, StudySmarterTransitive property of parallel lines, StudySmarter Originals

Proof: Now let's prove that the line common to other parallel lines is parallel. That is, pq, qr.

Then, without any loss of generality, we can say that line q lies in between line p and line r.

Now we have to prove that line p and line r are parallel. i.e. pr

Here, we will use the method of contradiction to prove this result, which shows that a statement is true simply by proving that it isn't possible for it to be false. Therefore, to prove that line p and line r are parallel, we first assume that line p and line r are not parallel lines (a contradiction). That means line p and line r must intersect each other, based on the definition of non-parallel lines. Now, as line q lies between lines p and r, when these lines intersect, line p or line r would have to intersect with line q as well. However, as line q is parallel to both the line p and line r, this cannot be possible. Hence, our assumption that line p and line r are not parallel is false. By the method of contradiction, line p and line r are parallel to each other. So, we have proved that if pq and qr, then pr.

We will take a look at the theorem which shows proportionality between three parallel lines.

Theorem 12: Three parallel lines theorem

If three parallel lines are cut by two transversals, then the segments formed on the transversal have equal proportion.

Parallel lines theorem, three parallel lines theorem, StudySmarter

Three parallel lines, StudySmarter Originals

Proof: Here lines p, q, and r are parallel to each other. And these lines are cut by two transversal t and s at points A, B, C, and D, E, and F respectively.

Now we have to show that ABBC=DEEF.

To prove this, we will make use of the intercept theorem. We are given that lines p, q, and r are parallel. Then we construct a line AH from point A, which is parallel to DF.

Parallel lines theorem, three parallel lines theorem, StudySmarterThree parallel lines with third transversal, StudySmarter Originals

We can notice that the left part of the figure is accurately what the intercept theorem states. So from the intercept theorem, we get:

ABBC=AGGH

As we constructed the parallel line AH, we know that AHDF.

We are also given that lines p, q, and r are parallel lines. So, by the definition of a parallelogram, ADEG and EFHG are both parallelograms. Now, from the properties of a parallelogram, we know that opposite sides are equal.

AG=DE, GH=EF

Using the transitive property, we can directly substitute and get the following result.

ABBC=AGGH=DEEF

ABBC=DEEF

Hence, we can say that the segments formed on both transversals are in equal proportions.

Solved examples involving parallel lines theorems

Let's apply the above theorems regarding parallel lines to some of the examples.

Each line is parallel to the next immediate line in the below figure. Then show that K1K4.

Parallel lines theorem, transitivity of parallel lines, StudySmarterTransitivity property example with four parallel lines

Solution: It is given that K1K2 and K2K3. Then by applying the transitive property of parallel lines theorem, we get that K1K3.Now it is also given that K3K4 and we already found K1K3.So again applying the transitive property of parallel lines theorem, we know that K1K4.

In the following figure two lines, a and c are both perpendicular to line s. Also, it is given that ab.Then prove that bc.

Parallel lines theorem, parallel lines examples, StudySmarterParallel lines example, StudySmarter Originals

Solution: Here, it is given that line s cuts line a and line c perpendicularly. So applying the perpendicular transversal theorem we get ac.We are given ab and we already found that ac. Then, from the transitivity property of parallel lines theorem, it immediately proves that bc.

Parallel Lines Theorem - Key takeaways

  • If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate interior angles are congruent. And conversely, if two lines are cut by a transversal so that alternate interior angles are congruent, then the two lines are parallel.
  • If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the exterior angles are congruent. Conversely, if two lines are cut by a transversal so that alternate exterior angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel.
  • If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the consecutive interior angles and consecutive exterior angles on the same side are supplementary. The converse of this also exists.
  • Two lines in a plane cut by transversals are parallel if and only if the corresponding angles are congruent.
  • If two lines in a plane are cut by a perpendicular transversal, then both lines are parallel.
  • If two lines in a plane are parallel to the same line, then all the lines are parallel to each other.
  • If three parallel lines are cut by two transversals, then the segments formed on the transversals have equal proportion.

Frequently Asked Questions about Parallel Lines Theorem

Alternate interior and exterior theorem. supplementary interior and exterior theorem, corresponding theorem, transitive theorem, three lines theorem are some of the theorems of parallel lines.

The theorem of parallel lines states that if three parallel lines are cut by two transversals, then the segments formed on transversals have equal proportion. 

Converse theorems of alternate interior and exterior theorem, consecutive interior and exterior theorem, corresponding theorem are the theorems to prove parallel lines.

By using the theorems of alternate interior and exterior angles, consecutive interior and exterior angles, corresponding angles, we can find angles in parallel lines. 

Final Parallel Lines Theorem Quiz

Question

State the alternate interior angles theorem.

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Answer

If two parallel lines in a plane are cut by a transversal then the alternate interior angles formed are congruent. 

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Question

"If two lines in a plane are cut by a perpendicular transversal then both lines are parallel. "

State the name of this theorem.

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Answer

Perpendicular parallel lines theorem 

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Question

What is a transversal line?

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Answer

A line passing through two lines at different points in the same plane is called a transversal line.

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Question

If two lines in a plane are parallel to the same line, then are all the lines parallel to each other?


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Answer

Yes

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Question

The segments with three parallel lines and two traversals what proportion?

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Answer

Equal

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Question

State perpendicular transversal theorem.

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Answer

If two lines in a plane are cut by a perpendicular transversal, then both lines are parallel.

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Question

A transversal to two lines are perpendicular, then both lines are not parallel.

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Answer

True

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