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Natural Logarithm

Natural Logarithm

Natural logarithms are logarithms to the base of e (Euler's number = 2.71828 ...). They are expressed as and they can be written as ln (x) as shorthand.

Converting between natural logarithms and exponential functions

Start with a general natural logarithm:.You can easily rewrite this as.

As always, you need to label each part of the function: the base is e (as with natural logarithms), the exponent is y, and the answer of the exponential is x.

Therefore you can rewrite logarithms as .

Solve to 3 sf

  1. Label each part of the function so: the base is e, the exponent is x, and the answer of the exponential is 5.
  2. Then formulate it into a logarithm to become
  3. As is the same as saying Ln, you can write it as a natural logarithm

What are the rules for natural logarithms?

Along with the specific rules for natural logarithms, you can use the general Laws of Logs as well as the Exponential Rules.

Rules for natural logarithms

  • If , then

Proving natural logarithm rules

Just like the proofs for Laws of Logs, you need to be able to understand each step of proving a natural logarithm rule – you do not need to feel like you could have got to that point without any help.

Proving Ln (1) = 0

can be written as

You will rewrite it as an exponential function where the base is e, the answer of the exponential is 1, and the exponent is m. This exponential would look like this:

Using our Power = 0 exponential law, you know that the exponent (in this case, m) must be 0 for the answer to the exponential to be 1.

Thus

Proving Ln (e) = 1

can be rewritten as where the base is e, the answer to the exponential is e, and the exponent is n.

As a result, you rewrite as .

According to our exponential rules, when the answer to the exponential is the same as the base, then the power must be 1.

Thus,

Proving Ln(ex)=x

As exponential and logarithms are inverse functions, they cancel each other out when they are placed in the same function.

This concept is the same as multiplying a number by 2 and then dividing by 2 – you end up with the same number you have in the beginning.

Therefore, Ln and e will cancel out so that you are left with just x.

Proving Ln (y) = Ln (x) means y = x

If you set Ln (y) = a and Ln (x) = b, you can rewrite each function as an exponential.

Where the base is e, the exponent is a, and answer to the exponential is y. Therefore, the exponential is.

Where the base is e, the exponent is b, and the answer to the exponential is x. Therefore, the exponential is.

Because you are told Ln (y) = Ln (x), must be equal to, therefore y = x.

Proving eLn(x)=x

The e and the Ln cancel each other out because exponentials and logarithms are the inverse functions of each other. By doing so, you are left with x.

Therefore,

This law uses the same thinking as the

Application of natural logarithm rules

Example 1: Solve

The expression can be written as a natural logarithm as the base is e, the exponent is 2x, and the answer to the exponential is 6.

So as a natural logarithm, it could be written as Ln (6) = 2x.

Therefore,

Example 2: Solve

The expression can be written as a logarithm, whereby the base is e; the exponent is x + 3, and the answer to the exponential is 10.

Therefore,

Example 3: Solve

As the exponential and logarithms are inverse functions, the e and Ln will cancel each other.

Therefore,

Example 4: Solve

To get x on its own, we need to convert the logarithm to an exponential where the base is e, the exponent is 1.4, and the answer to the exponential is x + 1.

Therefore, and

Example 5: Solve

1. Due to the power logarithm rule, can be written as

Therefore,

2. Using the product and quotient rule, we can do this further:

Natural Logarithm - Key takeaways

  • Natural logarithms are logarithms with the base of e.
  • To use natural logarithms to solve and simplify, you can use:; ; ; . This is alongside the laws for both Exponentials and Logarithms.

Frequently Asked Questions about Natural Logarithm

Natural logarithms are logarithms with the base of e.

We can use natural logarithms to solve functions with a base of e.

Natural logarithms are denoted using Ln (x). 

To expand a logarithm is to break down a single logarithm to its individual parts. We can do this with natural logarithms using the rules for natural logarithms as well as the rules for general logarithms and exponentials. 

Final Natural Logarithm Quiz

Question

What is a Natural Logarithm?

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Answer

A shorthand we can use for a Logarithm with a base of e: ln(x)

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Question

What is the base of a Natural Logarithm?

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Answer

e (Euler’s number = 2.71828...)

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Question

What is the exponential function for Ln(x) = y?


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Answer

ey=x

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Question

Solve ex = 8


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Answer

ln (8) = 2.08 (3 s.f)

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Question

Solve e3x = 12


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Answer

0. 828 ( 3 s.f)

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Question

What are the 5 Natural Logarithm rules?


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Answer

Ln (1) = 0; Ln (e) = 1; Ln(ex) = x; If Ln(y) = Ln(x), then y = x;  eLn(x)= x

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Question

Aside from the 5 Natural Logarithm rules, what else will help you solve natural logarithm functions?


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Answer

Laws of Logarithms and Exponentials

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Question

Solve ex-2 = 6


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Answer

3.79 (3 s.f.)

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Question

Solve ex+4 = 1.5


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Answer

-3.59 (3 s.f)

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Question

Solve e4x-2 = 10


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Answer

1.08 (3 s.f)

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Question

Solve e2x+1 = 8


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Answer

 0.540 (3 s.f.)

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Question

Simplify e4ln(x)


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Answer

x4

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Question

Solve ln(e4x) = 9


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Answer

2.25

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Question

Solve Ln (4x) = 7


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Answer

247 (3 s.f.)

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Question

Simplify Ln (6) + 3 Ln(2) – Ln (8)


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Answer

 Ln (6)

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Question

Solve Ln (5x) = Ln (20) 


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Answer

 x = 4

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Question

Solve Ln (6) + Ln (3) = Ln (180)


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Answer

x = 10

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