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Trigonometric Functions

- Calculus
- Absolute Maxima and Minima
- Absolute and Conditional Convergence
- Accumulation Function
- Accumulation Problems
- Algebraic Functions
- Alternating Series
- Antiderivatives
- Application of Derivatives
- Approximating Areas
- Arc Length of a Curve
- Area Between Two Curves
- Arithmetic Series
- Average Value of a Function
- Calculus of Parametric Curves
- Candidate Test
- Combining Differentiation Rules
- Combining Functions
- Continuity
- Continuity Over an Interval
- Convergence Tests
- Cost and Revenue
- Density and Center of Mass
- Derivative Functions
- Derivative of Exponential Function
- Derivative of Inverse Function
- Derivative of Logarithmic Functions
- Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives
- Derivatives and Continuity
- Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
- Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives of Polar Functions
- Derivatives of Sec, Csc and Cot
- Derivatives of Sin, Cos and Tan
- Determining Volumes by Slicing
- Direction Fields
- Disk Method
- Divergence Test
- Eliminating the Parameter
- Euler's Method
- Evaluating a Definite Integral
- Evaluation Theorem
- Exponential Functions
- Finding Limits
- Finding Limits of Specific Functions
- First Derivative Test
- Function Transformations
- General Solution of Differential Equation
- Geometric Series
- Growth Rate of Functions
- Higher-Order Derivatives
- Hydrostatic Pressure
- Hyperbolic Functions
- Implicit Differentiation Tangent Line
- Implicit Relations
- Improper Integrals
- Indefinite Integral
- Indeterminate Forms
- Initial Value Problem Differential Equations
- Integral Test
- Integrals of Exponential Functions
- Integrals of Motion
- Integrating Even and Odd Functions
- Integration Formula
- Integration Tables
- Integration Using Long Division
- Integration of Logarithmic Functions
- Integration using Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Intermediate Value Theorem
- Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Jump Discontinuity
- Lagrange Error Bound
- Limit Laws
- Limit of Vector Valued Function
- Limit of a Sequence
- Limits
- Limits at Infinity
- Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
- Limits of a Function
- Linear Approximations and Differentials
- Linear Differential Equation
- Linear Functions
- Logarithmic Differentiation
- Logarithmic Functions
- Logistic Differential Equation
- Maclaurin Series
- Manipulating Functions
- Maxima and Minima
- Maxima and Minima Problems
- Mean Value Theorem for Integrals
- Models for Population Growth
- Motion Along a Line
- Motion in Space
- Natural Logarithmic Function
- Net Change Theorem
- Newton's Method
- Nonhomogeneous Differential Equation
- One-Sided Limits
- Optimization Problems
- P Series
- Particle Model Motion
- Particular Solutions to Differential Equations
- Polar Coordinates
- Polar Coordinates Functions
- Polar Curves
- Population Change
- Power Series
- Radius of Convergence
- Ratio Test
- Removable Discontinuity
- Riemann Sum
- Rolle's Theorem
- Root Test
- Second Derivative Test
- Separable Equations
- Separation of Variables
- Simpson's Rule
- Solid of Revolution
- Solutions to Differential Equations
- Surface Area of Revolution
- Symmetry of Functions
- Tangent Lines
- Taylor Polynomials
- Taylor Series
- Techniques of Integration
- The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
- The Mean Value Theorem
- The Power Rule
- The Squeeze Theorem
- The Trapezoidal Rule
- Theorems of Continuity
- Trigonometric Substitution
- Vector Valued Function
- Vectors in Calculus
- Vectors in Space
- Washer Method
- Decision Maths
- Geometry
- 2 Dimensional Figures
- 3 Dimensional Vectors
- 3-Dimensional Figures
- Altitude
- Angles in Circles
- Arc Measures
- Area and Volume
- Area of Circles
- Area of Circular Sector
- Area of Parallelograms
- Area of Plane Figures
- Area of Rectangles
- Area of Regular Polygons
- Area of Rhombus
- Area of Trapezoid
- Area of a Kite
- Composition
- Congruence Transformations
- Congruent Triangles
- Convexity in Polygons
- Coordinate Systems
- Dilations
- Distance and Midpoints
- Equation of Circles
- Equilateral Triangles
- Figures
- Fundamentals of Geometry
- Geometric Inequalities
- Geometric Mean
- Geometric Probability
- Glide Reflections
- HL ASA and AAS
- Identity Map
- Inscribed Angles
- Isometry
- Isosceles Triangles
- Law of Cosines
- Law of Sines
- Linear Measure and Precision
- Median
- Parallel Lines Theorem
- Parallelograms
- Perpendicular Bisector
- Plane Geometry
- Polygons
- Projections
- Properties of Chords
- Proportionality Theorems
- Pythagoras Theorem
- Rectangle
- Reflection in Geometry
- Regular Polygon
- Rhombuses
- Right Triangles
- Rotations
- SSS and SAS
- Segment Length
- Similarity
- Similarity Transformations
- Special quadrilaterals
- Squares
- Surface Area of Cone
- Surface Area of Cylinder
- Surface Area of Prism
- Surface Area of Sphere
- Surface Area of a Solid
- Surface of Pyramids
- Symmetry
- Translations
- Trapezoids
- Triangle Inequalities
- Triangles
- Using Similar Polygons
- Vector Addition
- Vector Product
- Volume of Cone
- Volume of Cylinder
- Volume of Pyramid
- Volume of Solid
- Volume of Sphere
- Volume of prisms
- Mechanics Maths
- Acceleration and Time
- Acceleration and Velocity
- Angular Speed
- Assumptions
- Calculus Kinematics
- Coefficient of Friction
- Connected Particles
- Conservation of Mechanical Energy
- Constant Acceleration
- Constant Acceleration Equations
- Converting Units
- Elastic Strings and Springs
- Force as a Vector
- Kinematics
- Newton's First Law
- Newton's Law of Gravitation
- Newton's Second Law
- Newton's Third Law
- Power
- Projectiles
- Pulleys
- Resolving Forces
- Statics and Dynamics
- Tension in Strings
- Variable Acceleration
- Work Done by a Constant Force
- Probability and Statistics
- Bar Graphs
- Basic Probability
- Charts and Diagrams
- Conditional Probabilities
- Continuous and Discrete Data
- Frequency, Frequency Tables and Levels of Measurement
- Independent Events Probability
- Line Graphs
- Mean Median and Mode
- Mutually Exclusive Probabilities
- Probability Rules
- Probability of Combined Events
- Quartiles and Interquartile Range
- Systematic Listing
- Pure Maths
- ASA Theorem
- Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
- Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions
- Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
- Algebra
- Algebraic Fractions
- Algebraic Notation
- Algebraic Representation
- Analyzing Graphs of Polynomials
- Angle Measure
- Angles
- Angles in Polygons
- Approximation and Estimation
- Area and Circumference of a Circle
- Area and Perimeter of Quadrilaterals
- Area of Triangles
- Argand Diagram
- Arithmetic Sequences
- Average Rate of Change
- Bijective Functions
- Binomial Expansion
- Binomial Theorem
- Chain Rule
- Circle Theorems
- Circles
- Circles Maths
- Combination of Functions
- Combinatorics
- Common Factors
- Common Multiples
- Completing the Square
- Completing the Squares
- Complex Numbers
- Composite Functions
- Composition of Functions
- Compound Interest
- Compound Units
- Conic Sections
- Construction and Loci
- Converting Metrics
- Convexity and Concavity
- Coordinate Geometry
- Coordinates in Four Quadrants
- Cubic Function Graph
- Cubic Polynomial Graphs
- Data transformations
- De Moivre's Theorem
- Deductive Reasoning
- Definite Integrals
- Deriving Equations
- Determinant of Inverse Matrix
- Determinants
- Differential Equations
- Differentiation
- Differentiation Rules
- Differentiation from First Principles
- Differentiation of Hyperbolic Functions
- Direct and Inverse proportions
- Disjoint and Overlapping Events
- Disproof by Counterexample
- Distance from a Point to a Line
- Divisibility Tests
- Double Angle and Half Angle Formulas
- Drawing Conclusions from Examples
- Ellipse
- Equation of Line in 3D
- Equation of a Perpendicular Bisector
- Equation of a circle
- Equations
- Equations and Identities
- Equations and Inequalities
- Estimation in Real Life
- Euclidean Algorithm
- Evaluating and Graphing Polynomials
- Even Functions
- Exponential Form of Complex Numbers
- Exponential Rules
- Exponentials and Logarithms
- Expression Math
- Expressions and Formulas
- Faces Edges and Vertices
- Factorials
- Factoring Polynomials
- Factoring Quadratic Equations
- Factorising expressions
- Factors
- Finding Maxima and Minima Using Derivatives
- Finding Rational Zeros
- Finding the Area
- Forms of Quadratic Functions
- Fractional Powers
- Fractional Ratio
- Fractions
- Fractions and Decimals
- Fractions and Factors
- Fractions in Expressions and Equations
- Fractions, Decimals and Percentages
- Function Basics
- Functional Analysis
- Functions
- Fundamental Counting Principle
- Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
- Generating Terms of a Sequence
- Geometric Sequence
- Gradient and Intercept
- Graphical Representation
- Graphing Rational Functions
- Graphing Trigonometric Functions
- Graphs
- Graphs and Differentiation
- Graphs of Common Functions
- Graphs of Exponents and Logarithms
- Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
- Greatest Common Divisor
- Growth and Decay
- Growth of Functions
- Highest Common Factor
- Hyperbolas
- Imaginary Unit and Polar Bijection
- Implicit differentiation
- Inductive Reasoning
- Inequalities Maths
- Infinite geometric series
- Injective functions
- Instantaneous Rate of Change
- Integers
- Integrating Polynomials
- Integrating Trig Functions
- Integrating e^x and 1/x
- Integration
- Integration Using Partial Fractions
- Integration by Parts
- Integration by Substitution
- Integration of Hyperbolic Functions
- Interest
- Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
- Inverse Matrices
- Inverse and Joint Variation
- Inverse functions
- Iterative Methods
- Law of Cosines in Algebra
- Law of Sines in Algebra
- Laws of Logs
- Limits of Accuracy
- Linear Expressions
- Linear Systems
- Linear Transformations of Matrices
- Location of Roots
- Logarithm Base
- Logic
- Lower and Upper Bounds
- Lowest Common Denominator
- Lowest Common Multiple
- Math formula
- Matrices
- Matrix Addition and Subtraction
- Matrix Determinant
- Matrix Multiplication
- Metric and Imperial Units
- Misleading Graphs
- Mixed Expressions
- Modulus Functions
- Modulus and Phase
- Multiples of Pi
- Multiplication and Division of Fractions
- Multiplicative Relationship
- Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
- Natural Logarithm
- Natural Numbers
- Notation
- Number
- Number Line
- Number Systems
- Numerical Methods
- Odd functions
- Open Sentences and Identities
- Operation with Complex Numbers
- Operations with Decimals
- Operations with Matrices
- Operations with Polynomials
- Order of Operations
- Parabola
- Parallel Lines
- Parametric Differentiation
- Parametric Equations
- Parametric Integration
- Partial Fractions
- Pascal's Triangle
- Percentage
- Percentage Increase and Decrease
- Percentage as fraction or decimals
- Perimeter of a Triangle
- Permutations and Combinations
- Perpendicular Lines
- Points Lines and Planes
- Polynomial Graphs
- Polynomials
- Powers Roots And Radicals
- Powers and Exponents
- Powers and Roots
- Prime Factorization
- Prime Numbers
- Problem-solving Models and Strategies
- Product Rule
- Proof
- Proof and Mathematical Induction
- Proof by Contradiction
- Proof by Deduction
- Proof by Exhaustion
- Proof by Induction
- Properties of Exponents
- Proportion
- Proving an Identity
- Pythagorean Identities
- Quadratic Equations
- Quadratic Function Graphs
- Quadratic Graphs
- Quadratic functions
- Quadrilaterals
- Quotient Rule
- Radians
- Radical Functions
- Rates of Change
- Ratio
- Ratio Fractions
- Rational Exponents
- Rational Expressions
- Rational Functions
- Rational Numbers and Fractions
- Ratios as Fractions
- Real Numbers
- Reciprocal Graphs
- Recurrence Relation
- Recursion and Special Sequences
- Remainder and Factor Theorems
- Representation of Complex Numbers
- Rewriting Formulas and Equations
- Roots of Complex Numbers
- Roots of Polynomials
- Roots of Unity
- Rounding
- SAS Theorem
- SSS Theorem
- Scalar Triple Product
- Scale Drawings and Maps
- Scale Factors
- Scientific Notation
- Second Order Recurrence Relation
- Sector of a Circle
- Segment of a Circle
- Sequences
- Sequences and Series
- Series Maths
- Sets Math
- Similar Triangles
- Similar and Congruent Shapes
- Simple Interest
- Simplifying Fractions
- Simplifying Radicals
- Simultaneous Equations
- Sine and Cosine Rules
- Small Angle Approximation
- Solving Linear Equations
- Solving Linear Systems
- Solving Quadratic Equations
- Solving Radical Inequalities
- Solving Rational Equations
- Solving Simultaneous Equations Using Matrices
- Solving Systems of Inequalities
- Solving Trigonometric Equations
- Solving and Graphing Quadratic Equations
- Solving and Graphing Quadratic Inequalities
- Special Products
- Standard Form
- Standard Integrals
- Standard Unit
- Straight Line Graphs
- Substraction and addition of fractions
- Sum and Difference of Angles Formulas
- Sum of Natural Numbers
- Surds
- Surjective functions
- Tables and Graphs
- Tangent of a Circle
- The Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant
- Transformations
- Transformations of Graphs
- Translations of Trigonometric Functions
- Triangle Rules
- Triangle trigonometry
- Trigonometric Functions
- Trigonometric Functions of General Angles
- Trigonometric Identities
- Trigonometric Ratios
- Trigonometry
- Turning Points
- Types of Functions
- Types of Numbers
- Types of Triangles
- Unit Circle
- Units
- Variables in Algebra
- Vectors
- Verifying Trigonometric Identities
- Writing Equations
- Writing Linear Equations
- Statistics
- Bias in Experiments
- Binomial Distribution
- Binomial Hypothesis Test
- Bivariate Data
- Box Plots
- Categorical Data
- Categorical Variables
- Central Limit Theorem
- Chi Square Test for Goodness of Fit
- Chi Square Test for Homogeneity
- Chi Square Test for Independence
- Chi-Square Distribution
- Combining Random Variables
- Comparing Data
- Comparing Two Means Hypothesis Testing
- Conditional Probability
- Conducting a Study
- Conducting a Survey
- Conducting an Experiment
- Confidence Interval for Population Mean
- Confidence Interval for Population Proportion
- Confidence Interval for Slope of Regression Line
- Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Means
- Confidence Intervals
- Correlation Math
- Cumulative Distribution Function
- Cumulative Frequency
- Data Analysis
- Data Interpretation
- Degrees of Freedom
- Discrete Random Variable
- Distributions
- Dot Plot
- Empirical Rule
- Errors in Hypothesis Testing
- Estimator Bias
- Events (Probability)
- Frequency Polygons
- Generalization and Conclusions
- Geometric Distribution
- Histograms
- Hypothesis Test for Correlation
- Hypothesis Test for Regression Slope
- Hypothesis Test of Two Population Proportions
- Hypothesis Testing
- Inference for Distributions of Categorical Data
- Inferences in Statistics
- Large Data Set
- Least Squares Linear Regression
- Linear Interpolation
- Linear Regression
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Methods of Data Collection
- Normal Distribution
- Normal Distribution Hypothesis Test
- Normal Distribution Percentile
- Paired T-Test
- Point Estimation
- Probability
- Probability Calculations
- Probability Density Function
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- Quantitative Variables
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- Single Variable Data
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- Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient
- Standard Deviation
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- Sum of Independent Random Variables
- Survey Bias
- T-distribution
- Transforming Random Variables
- Tree Diagram
- Two Categorical Variables
- Two Quantitative Variables
- Type I Error
- Type II Error
- Types of Data in Statistics
- Variance for Binomial Distribution
- Venn Diagrams

Let's look at everything to do with trigonometric functions – sine, cosine and tangent functions and their respective graphs. Then let's explore the secant, cosecant, cotangent, arcsine, arccosine and arctangent functions.

Trigonometric functions are functions that relate to angles and lengths in a triangle. The most common trigonometric functions are sine, cosine and tangent. However, there are **reciprocal** trigonometric functions, such as cosecant, secant, cotangent and **inverse** trigonometric functions such as arcsine, arccosine and arctangent, which we will also explore in this article.

An easy way to remember the sine, cosine and tangent functions and what sides they correspond to in a right angle triangle is by using SOH CAH TOA. If we have a right angle triangle as below, and we label one angle 𝞱, we must label the three sides of the triangle opposite (for the only side that is opposite the angle 𝞱 and is not in contact with that angle), hypotenuse ( for the longest side, which is always the one opposite the 90 ° angle) and adjacent (for the last side).

The sine, cosine and tangent functions relate the ratio of two sides in a right-angled triangle to one of its angles. To remember which functions involve which sides of the triangle, we use the acronym SOH CAH TOA. The S, C and T stand for Sine, Cosine and Tangent respectively and the O, A and H for Opposite, Adjacent and Hypotenuse. So the Sine function involves the Opposite and the Hypotenuse, and so on.

All of the functions sine, cosine and tangent are equal to the sides they involve divided by each other.

As seen above, you can work out the sine of an angle in a right-angled triangle by dividing the opposite by the hypotenuse. The graph for a sine function looks like this (the red curve):

From this graph, we can observe the key features of the sine function:

The graph repeats every 2𝞹 or 360 °

The minimum value for sine is -1

The maximum value for sine is 1

This means that the amplitude of the graph is 1 and its period is 2𝞹 (or 360 °)

The graph crosses the y axis at 0, and every 𝞹 radians before and after that.

The sine function reaches its maximum value at 𝞹 / 2 and every 2𝞹 before and after that.

The sine function reaches its minimum value at 3𝞹 / 2 and every 2𝞹 before and after that.

You will need to remember the values of sine for commonly used angles by heart, and although this might sound tricky, there is a way to make it easier to memorise. You will need to know the sine values for the angles 0, 𝞹 / 6 (30 °), 𝞹 / 4 (45 °), 𝞹 / 3 (60 °) and 𝞹 / 2 (90 °). For this, the easiest way is to start constructing a table for the angle, 𝞱 and sin𝞱:

θ | 0 | ||||

sinθ |

Now we to fill out the sine values. For this, we will start by putting the numbers 0 to 4 from left to right:

θ | 0 | ||||

sin θ | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |

The next step is to add a square root to all these numbers and divide them by 2:

θ | 0 | ||||

sin θ |

Now, all we have left to do is simplify what we can:

θ | 0 | ||||

sin θ | 0 | 1 |

And that's it!

You can find the cosine value for an angle in a right-angled triangle by dividing the adjacent by the hypotenuse. The graph for the cosine value looks exactly like the sin graph, except that it is shifted to the left by 𝞹 / 2 radians (the blue curve):

By observing this graph, we can determine the key features of the cosine function:

The graph repeats every 2𝞹 or 360 °

The minimum value for cosine is -1

The maximum value for cosine is 1

This means that the amplitude of the graph is 1 and its period is 2𝞹 (or 360 °)

The graph crosses the y axis at 𝞹 / 2, and every 𝞹 radians before and after that.

The cosine function reaches its maximum value at 0 and every 2𝞹 before and after that.

The cosine function reaches its minimum value at 𝞹 and every 2𝞹 before and after that.

You will also need to remember the values of cosine for commonly used angles by heart, and although this might sound tricky, there is a way to make it easier to memorise. You will need to know the sine values for the angles 0, 𝞹 / 6 (30 °), 𝞹 / 4 (45 °), 𝞹 / 3 (60 °) and 𝞹 / 2 (90 °). For this, we will use the same method as for sin and start constructing a table for the angle, 𝞱 and cos𝞱:

θ | 0 | ||||

cos θ |

Now we will fill in the numbers 0 to 4, but this time, we will do this from right to left instead:

θ | 0 | ||||

cos θ | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 0 |

The final two steps are the same as before, so we will take the square root of each number and divide it by 2, and we simplify:

θ | 0 | ||||

cos θ | 1 | 0 |

As you can see, sine and cosine values for common angles are the same, simply the other way around.

You can work out the tangent of an angle by dividing the opposite by the adjacent in a right-angled triangle. However, the tangent function looks a bit different from the cosine and sine functions. It is not a wave but rather a non-continuous function, with asymptotes:

By observing this graph, we can determine the key features of the tangent function:

The graph repeats every 𝞹 or 180 °

The minimum value for tangent is -infinity

The maximum value for tangent is infinity

This means that the tangent function has no amplitude and its period is 𝞹 (or 180 °)

The graph crosses the y axis at 0 and every 𝞹 radians before and after that

The tangent graph has asymptotes, which are values that the function will get closer to infinity.

These asymptotes are at 𝞹 / 2 and every 𝞹 before and after that.

The tangent of an angle can also be found with this formula:

tan𝞱 = sin𝞱 / cos𝞱

Similar to before, you will need to remember the tan values for the angles 0, 𝞹 / 6 (30 °), 𝞹 / 4 (45 °), 𝞹 / 3 (60 °) and 𝞹 / 2 (90 °). For this, we will use the formula above and the tables that we already constructed for sine and cosine and use the fact that tan = sin/cos to work out the tan𝞱 values:

θ | 0 | ||||

sin θ | 0 | 1 | |||

cos θ | 1 | 0 | |||

tan θ | 0 | 1 | / |

Note that the value for tan (𝞹 / 2) cannot be determined as it is equal to 1/0, which cannot be worked out. This will result in an asymptote at 𝞹 / 2.

The inverse trigonometric functions refer to the arcsin, arccos and arctan functions, which can also be written as , , and . These functions do the opposite of the sine, cosine and tangent functions, which means that they give back an angle when we plug a sin, cos or tan value into them.

The graphs for these functions look very different to the sin, cos and tan graphs:

The reciprocal trigonometric functions refer to the cosecant, secant and cotangent functions, abbreviated as csc, sec and cot, respectively. We need to look back at our right-angled triangle to understand what these functions represent.

We earlier defined sin, cos and tan based on the ratios of the sides of this triangle. The cosecant, secant and cotangent are simply the reciprocal of the sin, cos and tan ratios respectively. This means that to find the equation for cosecant 𝞱, we would flip the equation of sin 𝞱 and so on.

SOH CAH TOA can help us remember the sin, cos, and tan functions.

The sine and cosine functions are waves with a period of 2𝝿 and an amplitude of 1.

The sine and cos functions are the same except shifted by 𝝿 / 2.

The tan function has asymptotes every 𝝿 radians.

- The inverse trigonometric functions refer to arcsin, arccos, and arctan, and these functions give us the angle with a specific sin, cos, or tan value.
- The reciprocal trigonometric functions refer to cosecant, secant, and cotangent, and these functions have the reciprocated equation of the sin, cos, and tan functions in a right-angled triangle.

Sin, cos, tan, arcsin, arccos, arctan, csc, sec and cot.

The range for sine and cosine is -1≤y≤1 and for tan y ∈ R.

More about Trigonometric Functions

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