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Methods of Data Collection

- Calculus
- Absolute Maxima and Minima
- Absolute and Conditional Convergence
- Accumulation Function
- Accumulation Problems
- Algebraic Functions
- Alternating Series
- Antiderivatives
- Application of Derivatives
- Approximating Areas
- Arc Length of a Curve
- Area Between Two Curves
- Arithmetic Series
- Average Value of a Function
- Calculus of Parametric Curves
- Candidate Test
- Combining Differentiation Rules
- Combining Functions
- Continuity
- Continuity Over an Interval
- Convergence Tests
- Cost and Revenue
- Density and Center of Mass
- Derivative Functions
- Derivative of Exponential Function
- Derivative of Inverse Function
- Derivative of Logarithmic Functions
- Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives
- Derivatives and Continuity
- Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
- Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives of Polar Functions
- Derivatives of Sec, Csc and Cot
- Derivatives of Sin, Cos and Tan
- Determining Volumes by Slicing
- Direction Fields
- Disk Method
- Divergence Test
- Eliminating the Parameter
- Euler's Method
- Evaluating a Definite Integral
- Evaluation Theorem
- Exponential Functions
- Finding Limits
- Finding Limits of Specific Functions
- First Derivative Test
- Function Transformations
- General Solution of Differential Equation
- Geometric Series
- Growth Rate of Functions
- Higher-Order Derivatives
- Hydrostatic Pressure
- Hyperbolic Functions
- Implicit Differentiation Tangent Line
- Implicit Relations
- Improper Integrals
- Indefinite Integral
- Indeterminate Forms
- Initial Value Problem Differential Equations
- Integral Test
- Integrals of Exponential Functions
- Integrals of Motion
- Integrating Even and Odd Functions
- Integration Formula
- Integration Tables
- Integration Using Long Division
- Integration of Logarithmic Functions
- Integration using Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Intermediate Value Theorem
- Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Jump Discontinuity
- Lagrange Error Bound
- Limit Laws
- Limit of Vector Valued Function
- Limit of a Sequence
- Limits
- Limits at Infinity
- Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
- Limits of a Function
- Linear Approximations and Differentials
- Linear Differential Equation
- Linear Functions
- Logarithmic Differentiation
- Logarithmic Functions
- Logistic Differential Equation
- Maclaurin Series
- Manipulating Functions
- Maxima and Minima
- Maxima and Minima Problems
- Mean Value Theorem for Integrals
- Models for Population Growth
- Motion Along a Line
- Motion in Space
- Natural Logarithmic Function
- Net Change Theorem
- Newton's Method
- Nonhomogeneous Differential Equation
- One-Sided Limits
- Optimization Problems
- P Series
- Particle Model Motion
- Particular Solutions to Differential Equations
- Polar Coordinates
- Polar Coordinates Functions
- Polar Curves
- Population Change
- Power Series
- Radius of Convergence
- Ratio Test
- Removable Discontinuity
- Riemann Sum
- Rolle's Theorem
- Root Test
- Second Derivative Test
- Separable Equations
- Separation of Variables
- Simpson's Rule
- Solid of Revolution
- Solutions to Differential Equations
- Surface Area of Revolution
- Symmetry of Functions
- Tangent Lines
- Taylor Polynomials
- Taylor Series
- Techniques of Integration
- The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
- The Mean Value Theorem
- The Power Rule
- The Squeeze Theorem
- The Trapezoidal Rule
- Theorems of Continuity
- Trigonometric Substitution
- Vector Valued Function
- Vectors in Calculus
- Vectors in Space
- Washer Method
- Decision Maths
- Geometry
- 2 Dimensional Figures
- 3 Dimensional Vectors
- 3-Dimensional Figures
- Altitude
- Angles in Circles
- Arc Measures
- Area and Volume
- Area of Circles
- Area of Circular Sector
- Area of Parallelograms
- Area of Plane Figures
- Area of Rectangles
- Area of Regular Polygons
- Area of Rhombus
- Area of Trapezoid
- Area of a Kite
- Composition
- Congruence Transformations
- Congruent Triangles
- Convexity in Polygons
- Coordinate Systems
- Dilations
- Distance and Midpoints
- Equation of Circles
- Equilateral Triangles
- Figures
- Fundamentals of Geometry
- Geometric Inequalities
- Geometric Mean
- Geometric Probability
- Glide Reflections
- HL ASA and AAS
- Identity Map
- Inscribed Angles
- Isometry
- Isosceles Triangles
- Law of Cosines
- Law of Sines
- Linear Measure and Precision
- Median
- Parallel Lines Theorem
- Parallelograms
- Perpendicular Bisector
- Plane Geometry
- Polygons
- Projections
- Properties of Chords
- Proportionality Theorems
- Pythagoras Theorem
- Rectangle
- Reflection in Geometry
- Regular Polygon
- Rhombuses
- Right Triangles
- Rotations
- SSS and SAS
- Segment Length
- Similarity
- Similarity Transformations
- Special quadrilaterals
- Squares
- Surface Area of Cone
- Surface Area of Cylinder
- Surface Area of Prism
- Surface Area of Sphere
- Surface Area of a Solid
- Surface of Pyramids
- Symmetry
- Translations
- Trapezoids
- Triangle Inequalities
- Triangles
- Using Similar Polygons
- Vector Addition
- Vector Product
- Volume of Cone
- Volume of Cylinder
- Volume of Pyramid
- Volume of Solid
- Volume of Sphere
- Volume of prisms
- Mechanics Maths
- Acceleration and Time
- Acceleration and Velocity
- Angular Speed
- Assumptions
- Calculus Kinematics
- Coefficient of Friction
- Connected Particles
- Conservation of Mechanical Energy
- Constant Acceleration
- Constant Acceleration Equations
- Converting Units
- Elastic Strings and Springs
- Force as a Vector
- Kinematics
- Newton's First Law
- Newton's Law of Gravitation
- Newton's Second Law
- Newton's Third Law
- Power
- Projectiles
- Pulleys
- Resolving Forces
- Statics and Dynamics
- Tension in Strings
- Variable Acceleration
- Work Done by a Constant Force
- Probability and Statistics
- Bar Graphs
- Basic Probability
- Charts and Diagrams
- Conditional Probabilities
- Continuous and Discrete Data
- Frequency, Frequency Tables and Levels of Measurement
- Independent Events Probability
- Line Graphs
- Mean Median and Mode
- Mutually Exclusive Probabilities
- Probability Rules
- Probability of Combined Events
- Quartiles and Interquartile Range
- Systematic Listing
- Pure Maths
- ASA Theorem
- Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities
- Addition and Subtraction of Rational Expressions
- Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
- Algebra
- Algebraic Fractions
- Algebraic Notation
- Algebraic Representation
- Analyzing Graphs of Polynomials
- Angle Measure
- Angles
- Angles in Polygons
- Approximation and Estimation
- Area and Circumference of a Circle
- Area and Perimeter of Quadrilaterals
- Area of Triangles
- Argand Diagram
- Arithmetic Sequences
- Average Rate of Change
- Bijective Functions
- Binomial Expansion
- Binomial Theorem
- Chain Rule
- Circle Theorems
- Circles
- Circles Maths
- Combination of Functions
- Combinatorics
- Common Factors
- Common Multiples
- Completing the Square
- Completing the Squares
- Complex Numbers
- Composite Functions
- Composition of Functions
- Compound Interest
- Compound Units
- Conic Sections
- Construction and Loci
- Converting Metrics
- Convexity and Concavity
- Coordinate Geometry
- Coordinates in Four Quadrants
- Cubic Function Graph
- Cubic Polynomial Graphs
- Data transformations
- De Moivre's Theorem
- Deductive Reasoning
- Definite Integrals
- Deriving Equations
- Determinant of Inverse Matrix
- Determinants
- Differential Equations
- Differentiation
- Differentiation Rules
- Differentiation from First Principles
- Differentiation of Hyperbolic Functions
- Direct and Inverse proportions
- Disjoint and Overlapping Events
- Disproof by Counterexample
- Distance from a Point to a Line
- Divisibility Tests
- Double Angle and Half Angle Formulas
- Drawing Conclusions from Examples
- Ellipse
- Equation of Line in 3D
- Equation of a Perpendicular Bisector
- Equation of a circle
- Equations
- Equations and Identities
- Equations and Inequalities
- Estimation in Real Life
- Euclidean Algorithm
- Evaluating and Graphing Polynomials
- Even Functions
- Exponential Form of Complex Numbers
- Exponential Rules
- Exponentials and Logarithms
- Expression Math
- Expressions and Formulas
- Faces Edges and Vertices
- Factorials
- Factoring Polynomials
- Factoring Quadratic Equations
- Factorising expressions
- Factors
- Finding Maxima and Minima Using Derivatives
- Finding Rational Zeros
- Finding the Area
- Forms of Quadratic Functions
- Fractional Powers
- Fractional Ratio
- Fractions
- Fractions and Decimals
- Fractions and Factors
- Fractions in Expressions and Equations
- Fractions, Decimals and Percentages
- Function Basics
- Functional Analysis
- Functions
- Fundamental Counting Principle
- Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
- Generating Terms of a Sequence
- Geometric Sequence
- Gradient and Intercept
- Graphical Representation
- Graphing Rational Functions
- Graphing Trigonometric Functions
- Graphs
- Graphs and Differentiation
- Graphs of Common Functions
- Graphs of Exponents and Logarithms
- Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
- Greatest Common Divisor
- Growth and Decay
- Growth of Functions
- Highest Common Factor
- Hyperbolas
- Imaginary Unit and Polar Bijection
- Implicit differentiation
- Inductive Reasoning
- Inequalities Maths
- Infinite geometric series
- Injective functions
- Instantaneous Rate of Change
- Integers
- Integrating Polynomials
- Integrating Trig Functions
- Integrating e^x and 1/x
- Integration
- Integration Using Partial Fractions
- Integration by Parts
- Integration by Substitution
- Integration of Hyperbolic Functions
- Interest
- Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
- Inverse Matrices
- Inverse and Joint Variation
- Inverse functions
- Iterative Methods
- Law of Cosines in Algebra
- Law of Sines in Algebra
- Laws of Logs
- Limits of Accuracy
- Linear Expressions
- Linear Systems
- Linear Transformations of Matrices
- Location of Roots
- Logarithm Base
- Logic
- Lower and Upper Bounds
- Lowest Common Denominator
- Lowest Common Multiple
- Math formula
- Matrices
- Matrix Addition and Subtraction
- Matrix Determinant
- Matrix Multiplication
- Metric and Imperial Units
- Misleading Graphs
- Mixed Expressions
- Modulus Functions
- Modulus and Phase
- Multiples of Pi
- Multiplication and Division of Fractions
- Multiplicative Relationship
- Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions
- Natural Logarithm
- Natural Numbers
- Notation
- Number
- Number Line
- Number Systems
- Numerical Methods
- Odd functions
- Open Sentences and Identities
- Operation with Complex Numbers
- Operations with Decimals
- Operations with Matrices
- Operations with Polynomials
- Order of Operations
- Parabola
- Parallel Lines
- Parametric Differentiation
- Parametric Equations
- Parametric Integration
- Partial Fractions
- Pascal's Triangle
- Percentage
- Percentage Increase and Decrease
- Percentage as fraction or decimals
- Perimeter of a Triangle
- Permutations and Combinations
- Perpendicular Lines
- Points Lines and Planes
- Polynomial Graphs
- Polynomials
- Powers Roots And Radicals
- Powers and Exponents
- Powers and Roots
- Prime Factorization
- Prime Numbers
- Problem-solving Models and Strategies
- Product Rule
- Proof
- Proof and Mathematical Induction
- Proof by Contradiction
- Proof by Deduction
- Proof by Exhaustion
- Proof by Induction
- Properties of Exponents
- Proportion
- Proving an Identity
- Pythagorean Identities
- Quadratic Equations
- Quadratic Function Graphs
- Quadratic Graphs
- Quadratic functions
- Quadrilaterals
- Quotient Rule
- Radians
- Radical Functions
- Rates of Change
- Ratio
- Ratio Fractions
- Rational Exponents
- Rational Expressions
- Rational Functions
- Rational Numbers and Fractions
- Ratios as Fractions
- Real Numbers
- Reciprocal Graphs
- Recurrence Relation
- Recursion and Special Sequences
- Remainder and Factor Theorems
- Representation of Complex Numbers
- Rewriting Formulas and Equations
- Roots of Complex Numbers
- Roots of Polynomials
- Roots of Unity
- Rounding
- SAS Theorem
- SSS Theorem
- Scalar Triple Product
- Scale Drawings and Maps
- Scale Factors
- Scientific Notation
- Second Order Recurrence Relation
- Sector of a Circle
- Segment of a Circle
- Sequences
- Sequences and Series
- Series Maths
- Sets Math
- Similar Triangles
- Similar and Congruent Shapes
- Simple Interest
- Simplifying Fractions
- Simplifying Radicals
- Simultaneous Equations
- Sine and Cosine Rules
- Small Angle Approximation
- Solving Linear Equations
- Solving Linear Systems
- Solving Quadratic Equations
- Solving Radical Inequalities
- Solving Rational Equations
- Solving Simultaneous Equations Using Matrices
- Solving Systems of Inequalities
- Solving Trigonometric Equations
- Solving and Graphing Quadratic Equations
- Solving and Graphing Quadratic Inequalities
- Special Products
- Standard Form
- Standard Integrals
- Standard Unit
- Straight Line Graphs
- Substraction and addition of fractions
- Sum and Difference of Angles Formulas
- Sum of Natural Numbers
- Surds
- Surjective functions
- Tables and Graphs
- Tangent of a Circle
- The Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant
- Transformations
- Transformations of Graphs
- Translations of Trigonometric Functions
- Triangle Rules
- Triangle trigonometry
- Trigonometric Functions
- Trigonometric Functions of General Angles
- Trigonometric Identities
- Trigonometric Ratios
- Trigonometry
- Turning Points
- Types of Functions
- Types of Numbers
- Types of Triangles
- Unit Circle
- Units
- Variables in Algebra
- Vectors
- Verifying Trigonometric Identities
- Writing Equations
- Writing Linear Equations
- Statistics
- Bias in Experiments
- Binomial Distribution
- Binomial Hypothesis Test
- Bivariate Data
- Box Plots
- Categorical Data
- Categorical Variables
- Central Limit Theorem
- Chi Square Test for Goodness of Fit
- Chi Square Test for Homogeneity
- Chi Square Test for Independence
- Chi-Square Distribution
- Combining Random Variables
- Comparing Data
- Comparing Two Means Hypothesis Testing
- Conditional Probability
- Conducting a Study
- Conducting a Survey
- Conducting an Experiment
- Confidence Interval for Population Mean
- Confidence Interval for Population Proportion
- Confidence Interval for Slope of Regression Line
- Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Means
- Confidence Intervals
- Correlation Math
- Cumulative Distribution Function
- Cumulative Frequency
- Data Analysis
- Data Interpretation
- Degrees of Freedom
- Discrete Random Variable
- Distributions
- Dot Plot
- Empirical Rule
- Errors in Hypothesis Testing
- Estimator Bias
- Events (Probability)
- Frequency Polygons
- Generalization and Conclusions
- Geometric Distribution
- Histograms
- Hypothesis Test for Correlation
- Hypothesis Test for Regression Slope
- Hypothesis Test of Two Population Proportions
- Hypothesis Testing
- Inference for Distributions of Categorical Data
- Inferences in Statistics
- Large Data Set
- Least Squares Linear Regression
- Linear Interpolation
- Linear Regression
- Measures of Central Tendency
- Methods of Data Collection
- Normal Distribution
- Normal Distribution Hypothesis Test
- Normal Distribution Percentile
- Paired T-Test
- Point Estimation
- Probability
- Probability Calculations
- Probability Density Function
- Probability Distribution
- Probability Generating Function
- Quantitative Variables
- Quartiles
- Random Variables
- Randomized Block Design
- Residual Sum of Squares
- Residuals
- Sample Mean
- Sample Proportion
- Sampling
- Sampling Distribution
- Scatter Graphs
- Single Variable Data
- Skewness
- Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient
- Standard Deviation
- Standard Error
- Standard Normal Distribution
- Statistical Graphs
- Statistical Measures
- Stem and Leaf Graph
- Sum of Independent Random Variables
- Survey Bias
- T-distribution
- Transforming Random Variables
- Tree Diagram
- Two Categorical Variables
- Two Quantitative Variables
- Type I Error
- Type II Error
- Types of Data in Statistics
- Variance for Binomial Distribution
- Venn Diagrams

I remember going to a restaurant and finding a small piece of paper on the table with questions about the food, service, and environment of the restaurant. This paper was placed on every table for the customers to fill out. You may have seen this in a restaurant or in some other place you visited.

The information collected from that piece of paper will be used to determine if their customers are served correctly and to know the areas they should improve on. Surveys like this are a method of data collection.

Let's start with the meaning of data collection method.

**Data collection methods** are methods used to gather, measure and analyze data.

Data collected provides information, insight and understanding of a particular topic or group of people. Data collection is used in various sectors, like the education sector and the business sector. Scientists also collect data when researching a subject. Collecting data is very useful, and you must ensure that the data is accurate.

Data collected can be used to:

make predictions;

get information;

make decisions;

improve products and services;

find ways to better handle situations; and

observe and predict trends.

Data collection must be done carefully to come to an accurate conclusion. Before selecting a method to use you must:

understand the research or topic;

know the aim of the research;

know the type of data you want to collect;

consider how long you are willing to spend; and

consider the depth of information you intend to get.

Let's take a look at some examples of data collection methods.

It is difficult to consider the advantages and disadvantages of different types of data collection when you don't have a good idea of what they are and how they are used! So first let's look at some of the types of methods, and then with each type the advantages and disadvantages are listed.

Here are some methods of data collection:

Interview method - used when you want to ask people an open-ended question.

Survey method - used when there are a limited number of answers people can give to a question.

Observation method - often used with animals, where they don't know they are being watched.

Documents and Records - historical societies collect documents and records to get an idea of what happened in their area over a given period of time.

Focus Groups - you are probably familiar with these from the products you buy!

Oral Histories - these are often used for collecting information on family history.

Census method - the US does a census every 10 years!

Experiment method - you have probably already done experiments and collected data in one of your science classes.

Let's look at some of these methods in more detail, along with their advantages and disadvantages.

The i**nterview method** is a common method of data collection. It is commonly used by scientists. It usually involves an in-person conversation between two people, but with technology advancing, there are ways to conduct interviews without being in the same room with them.

An **interview** is a meeting between two persons where one person asks questions and the other respond.

Interviews can be conducted over the phone or online via some video platform, audio platform or chatting platform. The purpose of conducting an interview is to collect data and gather information. So, the length of the interview and the depth of the questions you will ask depends on the amount or level of information you wish to acquire.

In-person interviews are usually expensive and time-consuming. Because of the expense, other forms of interviews (online, over the phone, etc.) are sometimes used, but in-person interviews are more effective at getting answers to open-ended questions than the other forms. With in-person interviews, you have the opportunity to ask follow-up questions based on the initial response that you get. You can hear the tone in which the question is answered, and you can notice the body language and mood of the person while answering. This will help you determine how accurate the answers you are getting are. With in-person interviews, information relating to appearance cannot be falsified.

Interviews can be personal, in groups, or even in a panel. It can be tiring and time-consuming if there are many people to be interviewed. Some tools you can use to collect data during interviews are an audio recorder, digital camera, camcorder, and pen and paper.

Some of the advantages are:

You can get in-depth information and use open-ended questions.

You can ask follow-up questions based on the response and reaction of the person being interviewed.

Data is usually accurate.

It is easy to target your audience.

Some of the disadvantages are:

It can be expensive.

It can be tiring and time-consuming when there are many people to interview.

A **survey** is a method of data collection. It is used to get information on people's preferences and opinions, especially concerning a product or service. It is also referred to as **sample** **survey method**. With surveys, it is easy to get to your target audience, especially when the survey is distributed online. Surveys can be distributed via phone call, mail, email, social media or face to face.

The questions and content of a survey need to be planned and structured properly. If not, the survey will not be effective because you will not be there to observe the person taking the survey and ask follow-up questions like in an interview. So, the survey has to contain everything necessary and possible responses to the survey need to be thought out ahead of time.

Online surveys are good if you are concerned about ease of data management, and cost-effectiveness. When distributed online, surveys can reach many people. Sometimes, you may not get accurate information from online surveys because some people might want to give answers that they think are acceptable rather than their true opinions.

An example of when you can use the survey method is if you want to get information from students in a school about the meals they are being served. For more information on the survey method, you can read our articles on Survey Sampling Methods and Sources of Bias in Surveys.

Some of the advantages are:

It can reach many people, especially when distributed digitally (online).

It is not expensive to do.

The data is easier to analyze.

Some of the disadvantages are:

There may be no way to reach out to the participants of the survey if there is a problem with it.

Some of the questions in the survey may not be answered, or the answers may be incomplete.

Some of the answers given may not be accurate. The participant may want to give answers that they think you would want instead of what they truly think.

**Observation** is a method of data collection where information is got by examining a situation, person or thing. With this method of data collection, you don't need to interact with the subjects of the study. All you have to do is pay attention to details, and notice and observe the interactions, reactions, behaviors and trends that you see. This method is also referred to as **observational study method.**

Observation involves studying and analyzing the behavior of the subject (which can be an individual, animal or any living thing) and how it interacts with others and its environment. In some cases, the subject doesn't have to know that it is being observed. This will take out the awkwardness or unwillingness some people may have with participating in a study. It will also give accurate data because there is no pretense.

There are different types of observation, including

the

**structured observation**which involves the researcher or in this case, the observer using a particular process for observation.the

**naturalistic observation,**where the subject is unaware that it is being watched and is observed in its natural environment.the

**participant observation,**where the researcher or observer becomes part of the environment that is being observed.

Imagine you just developed a product, and you want to get some feedback on the user experience. You can get this with the observation method. If you watch and observe different individuals using the product, you can see how they feel when interacting with the product. You can observe the point where they are happy, angry, frustrated or confused with the product. Based on these observations, you will be able to ask questions that will lead to the improvement of your product.

Some of the advantages are:

The data is collected with little or no interruption from the participants, especially because the participant may not know that they are being observed.

You can tell if your product is good or bad based on the reactions of the participants when interacting with the product.

Data collected is accurate.

Some of the disadvantages are:

It can be expensive.

Not everyone likes to be observed and can be offended when they realize they are being observed without their consent.

There may be bias during observation and data collection.

In this method, data is obtained from each member of a population. The population of interest can be a specific area, a small or large group of people or even the whole world. The census method is not limited to just human beings. It also applied to animals and other things.

Using this method is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is most suitable to use it when there are enough financial resources, when there is enough time to collect data or when the population is not very large.

10

This is a method of data collection that allows you to manipulate a variable and observe its effect on another variable. Doing this gives an understanding of the interaction and relationship between elements or variables, the cause and effect of behavior and the activities going on in the environment.

The variable that is manipulated is called the **independent variable** and the variable that is affected is called the **dependent variable**.

Some advantages are:

It allows you to explore all possible relationships between the variables or elements you are studying.

It can be used in various fields of science like medicine, engineering, agriculture, psychology, etc.

It gives you as the researcher a high level of control because you can manipulate and change the circumstance and observe the effect.

The results obtained can be duplicated and confirmed by creating the same conditions and doing the same experiment.

Some disadvantages are:

Because of the freedom to manipulate, the researcher might try to create conditions to give the desired outcome which might make the results unreliable.

It can be expensive and time-consuming.

This method is not always feasible. There can be situations where the variables cannot be manipulated or where the procedures of the experiment are unethical.

In the case where an environment is created under certain conditions to get the desired result, the result obtained may not be achievable in real life because such conditions may not exist.

**Data collection methods**are methods used to gather, measure and analyze data.- Some examples of data collection methods are:
- Interview method.
- Survey method.
- Observation method.
- Documents and Records.
- Focus Groups.
- Oral Histories.

- Before selecting a method to use, you must first understand the research or topic, know the aim of the research, know the type of data you want to collect, know how long you are willing to spend and consider the depth of information you intend to get.

There are several ones some are:

Interview methods.

Sampling methods.

Observational methods.

They are the methods by which data can be gathered. The methods of data collection are below.

- Interview method.
- Survey method.
- Observation method.
- Documents and Records.
- Focus Groups.
- Oral Histories.
- Sampling method.

More about Methods of Data Collection

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