StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.

4.8 • +11k Ratings

More than 3 Million Downloads

Free

StudySmarter AI is coming soon!

- :00Days
- :00Hours
- :00Mins
- 00Seconds

A new era for learning is coming soonSign up for free

Suggested languages for you:

Americas

Europe

The theory of conservation of energy tells us energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only be transformed into different forms. Thermal energy is heat energy in the form of heat, which is transferred when a temperature difference is present. Thermal energy can only be transferred from a higher-temperature body to a lower-temperature body until both bodies reach thermal equilibrium.Thermal equilibrium is…

Content verified by subject matter experts

Free StudySmarter App with over 20 million students

Explore our app and discover over 50 million learning materials for free.

Heat Transfer

- Astrophysics
- Absolute Magnitude
- Astronomical Objects
- Astronomical Telescopes
- Black Body Radiation
- Classification by Luminosity
- Classification of Stars
- Cosmology
- Doppler Effect
- Exoplanet Detection
- Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams
- Hubble's Law
- Large Diameter Telescopes
- Quasars
- Radio Telescopes
- Reflecting Telescopes
- Stellar Spectral Classes
- Telescopes
- Atoms and Radioactivity
- Fission and Fusion
- Medical Tracers
- Nuclear Reactors
- Radiotherapy
- Random Nature of Radioactive Decay
- Thickness Monitoring
- Circular Motion and Gravitation
- Applications of Circular Motion
- Centripetal and Centrifugal Force
- Circular Motion and Free-Body Diagrams
- Fundamental Forces
- Gravitational and Electric Forces
- Gravity on Different Planets
- Inertial and Gravitational Mass
- Vector Fields
- Conservation of Energy and Momentum
- Dynamics
- Application of Newton's Second Law
- Buoyancy
- Drag Force
- Dynamic Systems
- Free Body Diagrams
- Normal Force
- Springs Physics
- Superposition of Forces
- Tension
- Electric Charge Field and Potential
- Charge Distribution
- Charged Particle in Uniform Electric Field
- Conservation of Charge
- Electric Field Between Two Parallel Plates
- Electric Field Lines
- Electric Field of Multiple Point Charges
- Electric Force
- Electric Potential Due to Dipole
- Electric Potential due to a Point Charge
- Electrical Systems
- Equipotential Lines
- Electricity
- Ammeter
- Attraction and Repulsion
- Basics of Electricity
- Batteries
- Capacitors in Series and Parallel
- Circuit Schematic
- Circuit Symbols
- Circuits
- Current Density
- Current-Voltage Characteristics
- DC Circuit
- Electric Current
- Electric Generators
- Electric Motor
- Electrical Power
- Electricity Generation
- Emf and Internal Resistance
- Kirchhoff's Junction Rule
- Kirchhoff's Loop Rule
- National Grid Physics
- Ohm's Law
- Potential Difference
- Power Rating
- RC Circuit
- Resistance
- Resistance and Resistivity
- Resistivity
- Resistors in Series and Parallel
- Series and Parallel Circuits
- Simple Circuit
- Static Electricity
- Superconductivity
- Time Constant of RC Circuit
- Transformer
- Voltage Divider
- Voltmeter
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Benjamin Franklin's Kite Experiment
- Changing Magnetic Field
- Circuit Analysis
- Diamagnetic Levitation
- Electric Dipole
- Electric Field Energy
- Magnets
- Oersted's Experiment
- Voltage
- Electromagnetism
- Electrostatics
- Energy Physics
- Big Energy Issues
- Conservative and Non Conservative Forces
- Efficiency in Physics
- Elastic Potential Energy
- Electrical Energy
- Energy and the Environment
- Forms of Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Heat Engines
- Heat Transfer Efficiency
- Kinetic Energy
- Mechanical Power
- Potential Energy
- Potential Energy and Energy Conservation
- Pulling Force
- Renewable Energy Sources
- Wind Energy
- Work Energy Principle
- Engineering Physics
- Angular Momentum
- Angular Work and Power
- Engine Cycles
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Moment of Inertia
- Non-Flow Processes
- PV Diagrams
- Reversed Heat Engines
- Rotational Kinetic Energy
- Second Law and Engines
- Thermodynamics and Engines
- Torque and Angular Acceleration
- Famous Physicists
- Fields in Physics
- Alternating Currents
- Capacitance
- Capacitor Charge
- Capacitor Discharge
- Coulomb's Law
- Electric Field Strength
- Electric Fields
- Electric Potential
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Energy Stored by a Capacitor
- Equipotential Surface
- Escape Velocity
- Gravitational Field Strength
- Gravitational Fields
- Gravitational Potential
- Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Flux Density
- Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Linkage
- Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field
- Newton’s Laws
- Operation of a Transformer
- Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Planetary Orbits
- Synchronous Orbits
- Fluids
- Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure
- Application of Bernoulli's Equation
- Archimedes' Principle
- Conservation of Energy in Fluids
- Fluid Flow
- Fluid Systems
- Force and Pressure
- Force
- Conservation of Momentum
- Contact Forces
- Elastic Forces
- Force and Motion
- Gravity
- Impact Forces
- Moment Physics
- Moments Levers and Gears
- Moments and Equilibrium
- Pressure
- Resultant Force
- Safety First
- Time Speed and Distance
- Velocity and Acceleration
- Work Done
- Fundamentals of Physics
- Further Mechanics and Thermal Physics
- Bottle Rocket
- Charles law
- Circular Motion
- Diesel Cycle
- Gas Laws
- Heat Transfer
- Heat Transfer Experiments
- Ideal Gas Model
- Ideal Gases
- Kinetic Theory of Gases
- Models of Gas Behaviour
- Newton's Law of Cooling
- Periodic Motion
- Rankine Cycle
- Resonance
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Harmonic Motion Energy
- Temperature
- Thermal Equilibrium
- Thermal Expansion
- Thermal Physics
- Volume
- Work in Thermodynamics
- Geometrical and Physical Optics
- Kinematics Physics
- Air Resistance
- Angular Kinematic Equations
- Average Velocity and Acceleration
- Displacement, Time and Average Velocity
- Frame of Reference
- Free Falling Object
- Kinematic Equations
- Motion in One Dimension
- Motion in Two Dimensions
- Rotational Motion
- Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Linear Momentum
- Magnetism
- Ampere force
- Earth's Magnetic Field
- Fleming's Left Hand Rule
- Induced Potential
- Magnetic Forces and Fields
- Motor Effect
- Particles in Magnetic Fields
- Permanent and Induced Magnetism
- Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
- Eddy Current
- Faraday's Law
- Induced Currents
- Inductance
- LC Circuit
- Lenz's Law
- Magnetic Field of a Current-Carrying Wire
- Magnetic Flux
- Magnetic Materials
- Monopole vs Dipole
- RL Circuit
- Measurements
- Mechanics and Materials
- Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Bouncing Ball Example
- Bulk Properties of Solids
- Centre of Mass
- Collisions and Momentum Conservation
- Conservation of Energy
- Density
- Elastic Collisions
- Force Energy
- Friction
- Graphs of Motion
- Linear Motion
- Materials
- Materials Energy
- Moments
- Momentum
- Power and Efficiency
- Projectile Motion
- Scalar and Vector
- Terminal Velocity
- Vector Problems
- Work and Energy
- Young's Modulus
- Medical Physics
- Absorption of X-Rays
- CT Scanners
- Defects of Vision
- Defects of Vision and Their Correction
- Diagnostic X-Rays
- Effective Half Life
- Electrocardiography
- Fibre Optics and Endoscopy
- Gamma Camera
- Hearing Defects
- High Energy X-Rays
- Lenses
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Noise Sensitivity
- Non Ionising Imaging
- Physics of Vision
- Physics of the Ear
- Physics of the Eye
- Radioactive Implants
- Radionuclide Imaging Techniques
- Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy
- Structure of the Ear
- Ultrasound Imaging
- X-Ray Image Processing
- X-Ray Imaging
- Modern Physics
- Bohr Model of the Atom
- Disintegration Energy
- Franck Hertz Experiment
- Mass Energy Equivalence
- Nuclear Reaction
- Nucleus Structure
- Quantization of Energy
- Spectral Lines
- The Discovery of the Atom
- Wave Function
- Nuclear Physics
- Alpha Beta and Gamma Radiation
- Binding Energy
- Half Life
- Induced Fission
- Mass and Energy
- Nuclear Instability
- Nuclear Radius
- Radioactive Decay
- Radioactivity
- Rutherford Scattering
- Safety of Nuclear Reactors
- Oscillations
- Energy Time Graph
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Hooke's Law
- Kinetic Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Mechanical Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Pendulum
- Period of Pendulum
- Period, Frequency and Amplitude
- Phase Angle
- Physical Pendulum
- Restoring Force
- Simple Pendulum
- Spring-Block Oscillator
- Torsional Pendulum
- Velocity
- Particle Model of Matter
- Physical Quantities and Units
- Converting Units
- Physical Quantities
- SI Prefixes
- Standard Form Physics
- Units Physics
- Use of SI Units
- Physics of Motion
- Acceleration
- Angular Acceleration
- Angular Displacement
- Angular Velocity
- Centrifugal Force
- Centripetal Force
- Displacement
- Equilibrium
- Forces of Nature Physics
- Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa Experiment
- Inclined Plane
- Inertia
- Mass in Physics
- Speed Physics
- Static Equilibrium
- Radiation
- Antiparticles
- Antiquark
- Atomic Model
- Classification of Particles
- Collisions of Electrons with Atoms
- Conservation Laws
- Electromagnetic Radiation and Quantum Phenomena
- Isotopes
- Neutron Number
- Particles
- Photons
- Protons
- Quark Physics
- Specific Charge
- The Photoelectric Effect
- Wave-Particle Duality
- Rotational Dynamics
- Angular Impulse
- Angular Kinematics
- Angular Motion and Linear Motion
- Connecting Linear and Rotational Motion
- Orbital Trajectory
- Rotational Equilibrium
- Rotational Inertia
- Satellite Orbits
- Third Law of Kepler
- Scientific Method Physics
- Data Collection
- Data Representation
- Drawing Conclusions
- Equations in Physics
- Uncertainties and Evaluations
- Space Physics
- Thermodynamics
- Heat Radiation
- Thermal Conductivity
- Thermal Efficiency
- Thermodynamic Diagram
- Thermodynamic Force
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Control
- Torque and Rotational Motion
- Centripetal Acceleration and Centripetal Force
- Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Force and Torque
- Muscle Torque
- Newton's Second Law in Angular Form
- Simple Machines
- Unbalanced Torque
- Translational Dynamics
- Centripetal Force and Velocity
- Critical Speed
- Free Fall and Terminal Velocity
- Gravitational Acceleration
- Kinetic Friction
- Object in Equilibrium
- Orbital Period
- Resistive Force
- Spring Force
- Static Friction
- Turning Points in Physics
- Cathode Rays
- Discovery of the Electron
- Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Electron Microscopes
- Electron Specific Charge
- Length Contraction
- Michelson-Morley Experiment
- Millikan's Experiment
- Newton's and Huygens' Theories of Light
- Photoelectricity
- Relativistic Mass and Energy
- Special Relativity
- Thermionic Electron Emission
- Time Dilation
- Wave Particle Duality of Light
- Waves Physics
- Acoustics
- Applications of Ultrasound
- Applications of Waves
- Diffraction
- Diffraction Gratings
- Doppler Effect in Light
- Earthquake Shock Waves
- Echolocation
- Image Formation by Lenses
- Interference
- Light
- Longitudinal Wave
- Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
- Mirror
- Oscilloscope
- Phase Difference
- Polarisation
- Progressive Waves
- Properties of Waves
- Ray Diagrams
- Ray Tracing Mirrors
- Reflection
- Refraction
- Refraction at a Plane Surface
- Resonance in Sound Waves
- Seismic Waves
- Snell's law
- Spectral Colour
- Standing Waves
- Stationary Waves
- Total Internal Reflection in Optical Fibre
- Transverse Wave
- Ultrasound
- Wave Characteristics
- Wave Speed
- Waves in Communication
- X-rays
- Work Energy and Power
- Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
- Dissipative Force
- Energy Dissipation
- Energy in Pendulum
- Force and Potential Energy
- Force vs. Position Graph
- Orbiting Objects
- Potential Energy Graphs and Motion
- Spring Potential Energy
- Total Mechanical Energy
- Translational Kinetic Energy
- Work Energy Theorem
- Work and Kinetic Energy

Lerne mit deinen Freunden und bleibe auf dem richtigen Kurs mit deinen persönlichen Lernstatistiken

Jetzt kostenlos anmeldenNie wieder prokastinieren mit unseren Lernerinnerungen.

Jetzt kostenlos anmeldenThe theory of conservation of energy tells us energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only be transformed into different forms. Thermal energy is heat energy in the form of heat, which is transferred when a temperature difference is present. Thermal energy can only be transferred from a higher-temperature body to a lower-temperature body until both bodies reach thermal equilibrium.

Thermal equilibrium is a state where two substances of matter have reached the same temperature and hence there is no longer transfer of thermal energy between them. It can also be described as an isothermal condition. In order for it to be counted as an isothermal condition, the two bodies need to be in contact with each other.

If a block of ice with a temperature of -5°C is positioned on a table with a temperature of 25°C, will thermal equilibrium be reached?

**Solution**

The thermal energy of the table will transfer to the ice due to the temperature difference (ΔΤ) of 20°C, until these two objects reach thermal equilibrium. So thermal equilibrium will be reached when these two objects reach the same temperature.

The temperature of the two regions under the present temperature gradient will provide the direction of the heat transfer. The direction of thermal energy will always be from the higher temperature body to the lower temperature body, when no external heat additions are in the system. In the above example, the direction of heat transfer is from the table to the ice as the table has a higher temperature.

There are three main methods by which heat transfer can occur. These include convection, conduction, and radiation.

Also known as convective heat transfer, this entails the transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid that might be in the form of gas or liquid. When a fluid moves, thermal energy is being transferred from the motion of particles in the fluid.

Moving hot fluid inside a pipeline will cause the pipe to heat up as thermal energy will transfer from the hot fluid to the pipeline walls, causing the material to heat up.

This is a method of heat transfer that occurs due to collisions between particles and subatomic particles within a body. When subatomic particles collide with each other, there is a transfer of kinetic energy known as internal energy, which creates heat.

When a hot pan is removed from the stove and positioned on a table, the thermal energy from the hot pan will transfer locally to the surface of the table by the collision of particles between the two surfaces.

Radiation is a method of heat transfer in the form of light or electromagnetic waves. This type of energy is emitted by certain matters around us.

An example of radiation heat transfer is the heating of a room from the thermal energy emitted by a fireplace. In this example, heat transfer through conduction also occurs in the room, but at a lower rate.

This is a physical property of an object, used to express how well heat is being transferred. If the heat transfer coefficient (h) is large, then heat will be transferred from one object to another more easily and quickly, and vice versa. The heat transfer coefficient depends on two parameters - thermal conductivity, and the thickness of the materials in which heat transfer occurs.

Thermal conductivity is a measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat. If thermal conductivity is high, the heat transfer coefficient will also be higher. And also, if the material is quite thick, the resulting heat transfer coefficient will be lower.

The rate at which heat transfer occurs can be described by the following equation. Keep in mind:

- h is the heat transfer coefficient.
- Q is the heat transferred measured in Watts.
- ΔΤ is the temperature difference between the two objects of interest (it is measured in Kelvin).
- A is the surface area of the conduction zone in m
^{2}. - T1 and T2 are the temperatures of the surface and surroundings respectively.

\[Q = h \cdot A \cdot \Delta T = h \cdot A \cdot (T_2 - T_1)\]

A pan with a diameter of 20cm and a depth of 5cm is being heated. Energy is transferred by convection from the stove to the bottom of the pan at a rate of 600 W. The resulting temperature on the outer bottom of the pan is 380 K. Find the heat transfer coefficient if the temperature at the inner bottom surface is 300 K.

**Solution**

We first need to find the surface area in SI units. We do that by converting 20 cm into meters and then converting diameter into radius to find the area as shown below.

\(D = 20 \space cm = 20 \cdot 10^{-2} \space m\)

\(R = \frac{20 \cdot 10^{-2} \space m}{2} = 0.1 \space mA = \pi \cdot r^2 = \pi \cdot 0.1^2 m^2 = 0.0314 \space m^2\)

Find the heat transfer coefficient by rearranging the heat transfer rate equation.

\(Q = h \cdot A \cdot (T_2 - T_1) \rightarrow h = \frac{Q}{A \cdot (T_2-T_1)}\)

Finally, we substitute the given values in the final equation to find the heat transfer coefficient.

\(h = \frac{Q}{A \cdot (T_2-T_1} = \frac{600}{0.0314 \cdot (380-300)} [W/m^2K] = 238.85 [W/m^2K]\)

Thermal energy transfer is the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies due to temperature differences.

Thermal energy can be transferred by three main methods.

Convection, conduction, and radiation are the methods of thermal energy transfer.

The heat transfer coefficient is a characteristic of the thermal conductivity of a material, which measures how well heat is being transferred through the material.

It is the thermal energy transferred in the form of electromagnetic radiation or light.

Heat is transferred by three methods, convection , radiation and conduction.

More about Heat Transfer

How would you like to learn this content?

Creating flashcards

Studying with content from your peer

Taking a short quiz

94% of StudySmarter users achieve better grades.

Sign up for free!94% of StudySmarter users achieve better grades.

Sign up for free!How would you like to learn this content?

Creating flashcards

Studying with content from your peer

Taking a short quiz

Free physics cheat sheet!

Everything you need to know on . A perfect summary so you can easily remember everything.

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Have all your study materials in one place.

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.