StudySmarter - The all-in-one study app.

4.8 • +11k Ratings

More than 3 Million Downloads

Free

Suggested languages for you:

Americas

Europe

Suggested languages for you:

Americas

Europe

- Flashcards
- Notes
- Explanations
- Study Planner
- Textbook solutions

Mechanics and Materials

- Astrophysics
- Absolute Magnitude
- Astronomical Objects
- Astronomical Telescopes
- Black Body Radiation
- Classification by Luminosity
- Classification of Stars
- Cosmology
- Doppler Effect
- Exoplanet Detection
- Hertzsprung-Russell Diagrams
- Hubble's Law
- Large Diameter Telescopes
- Quasars
- Radio Telescopes
- Reflecting Telescopes
- Stellar Spectral Classes
- Telescopes
- Atoms and Radioactivity
- Fission and Fusion
- Medical Tracers
- Nuclear Reactors
- Radiotherapy
- Random Nature of Radioactive Decay
- Thickness Monitoring
- Circular Motion and Gravitation
- Applications of Circular Motion
- Centripetal and Centrifugal Force
- Circular Motion and Free-Body Diagrams
- Fundamental Forces
- Gravitational and Electric Forces
- Gravity on Different Planets
- Inertial and Gravitational Mass
- Vector Fields
- Conservation of Energy and Momentum
- Dynamics
- Application of Newton's Second Law
- Buoyancy
- Drag Force
- Dynamic Systems
- Free Body Diagrams
- Friction Force
- Normal Force
- Springs Physics
- Superposition of Forces
- Tension
- Electric Charge Field and Potential
- Charge Distribution
- Charged Particle in Uniform Electric Field
- Conservation of Charge
- Electric Field Between Two Parallel Plates
- Electric Field Lines
- Electric Field of Multiple Point Charges
- Electric Force
- Electric Potential Due to Dipole
- Electric Potential due to a Point Charge
- Electrical Systems
- Equipotential Lines
- Electricity
- Ammeter
- Attraction and Repulsion
- Basics of Electricity
- Batteries
- Capacitors in Series and Parallel
- Circuit Schematic
- Circuit Symbols
- Circuits
- Current Density
- Current-Voltage Characteristics
- DC Circuit
- Electric Current
- Electric Motor
- Electrical Power
- Electricity Generation
- Emf and Internal Resistance
- Kirchhoff's Junction Rule
- Kirchhoff's Loop Rule
- National Grid Physics
- Ohm's Law
- Potential Difference
- Power Rating
- RC Circuit
- Resistance
- Resistance and Resistivity
- Resistivity
- Resistors in Series and Parallel
- Series and Parallel Circuits
- Simple Circuit
- Static Electricity
- Superconductivity
- Time Constant of RC Circuit
- Transformer
- Voltage Divider
- Voltmeter
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Benjamin Franklin's Kite Experiment
- Changing Magnetic Field
- Circuit Analysis
- Diamagnetic Levitation
- Electric Dipole
- Electric Field Energy
- Magnets
- Oersted's Experiment
- Voltage
- Electromagnetism
- Electrostatics
- Energy Physics
- Big Energy Issues
- Conservative and Non Conservative Forces
- Elastic Potential Energy
- Electrical Energy
- Energy and the Environment
- Forms of Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Heat Engines
- Heat Transfer Efficiency
- Kinetic Energy
- Mechanical Power
- Potential Energy
- Potential Energy and Energy Conservation
- Pulling Force
- Renewable Energy Sources
- Wind Energy
- Work Energy Principle
- Engineering Physics
- Angular Momentum
- Angular Work and Power
- Engine Cycles
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Moment of Inertia
- Non-Flow Processes
- PV Diagrams
- Reversed Heat Engines
- Rotational Kinetic Energy
- Second Law and Engines
- Thermodynamics and Engines
- Torque and Angular Acceleration
- Fields in Physics
- Alternating Currents
- Capacitance
- Capacitor Charge
- Capacitor Discharge
- Coulomb's Law
- Electric Field Strength
- Electric Fields
- Electric Potential
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Energy Stored by a Capacitor
- Escape Velocity
- Gravitational Field Strength
- Gravitational Fields
- Gravitational Potential
- Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Flux Density
- Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Linkage
- Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field
- Newton’s Laws
- Operation of a Transformer
- Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Planetary Orbits
- Synchronous Orbits
- Fluids
- Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure
- Application of Bernoulli's Equation
- Archimedes' Principle
- Conservation of Energy in Fluids
- Fluid Flow
- Fluid Systems
- Force and Pressure
- Force
- Air resistance and friction
- Conservation of Momentum
- Contact Forces
- Elastic Forces
- Force and Motion
- Gravity
- Impact Forces
- Moment Physics
- Moments Levers and Gears
- Moments and Equilibrium
- Pressure
- Resultant Force
- Safety First
- Time Speed and Distance
- Velocity and Acceleration
- Work Done
- Fundamentals of Physics
- Further Mechanics and Thermal Physics
- Bottle Rocket
- Charles law
- Circular Motion
- Diesel Cycle
- Gas Laws
- Heat Transfer
- Heat Transfer Experiments
- Ideal Gas Model
- Ideal Gases
- Kinetic Theory of Gases
- Models of Gas Behaviour
- Newton's Law of Cooling
- Periodic Motion
- Rankine Cycle
- Resonance
- Simple Harmonic Motion
- Simple Harmonic Motion Energy
- Temperature
- Thermal Equilibrium
- Thermal Physics
- Volume
- Work in Thermodynamics
- Geometrical and Physical Optics
- Kinematics Physics
- Air Resistance
- Angular Kinematic Equations
- Average Velocity and Acceleration
- Displacement, Time and Average Velocity
- Frame of Reference
- Free Falling Object
- Kinematic Equations
- Motion in One Dimension
- Motion in Two Dimensions
- Rotational Motion
- Uniformly Accelerated Motion
- Linear Momentum
- Magnetism
- Ampere force
- Earth's Magnetic Field
- Fleming's Left Hand Rule
- Induced Potential
- Magnetic Forces and Fields
- Motor Effect
- Particles in Magnetic Fields
- Permanent and Induced Magnetism
- Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
- Faraday's Law
- Induced Currents
- LC Circuit
- Lenz's Law
- Magnetic Field of a Current-Carrying Wire
- Magnetic Flux
- Magnetic Materials
- Monopole vs Dipole
- RL Circuit
- Measurements
- Mechanics and Materials
- Acceleration Due to Gravity
- Bouncing Ball Example
- Bulk Properties of Solids
- Centre of Mass
- Collisions and Momentum Conservation
- Conservation of Energy
- Density
- Elastic Collisions
- Force Energy
- Friction
- Graphs of Motion
- Linear Motion
- Materials
- Materials Energy
- Moments
- Momentum
- Power and Efficiency
- Projectile Motion
- Scalar and Vector
- Terminal Velocity
- Vector Problems
- Work and Energy
- Young's Modulus
- Medical Physics
- Absorption of X-Rays
- CT Scanners
- Defects of Vision
- Defects of Vision and Their Correction
- Diagnostic X-Rays
- Effective Half Life
- Electrocardiography
- Fibre Optics and Endoscopy
- Gamma Camera
- Hearing Defects
- High Energy X-Rays
- Lenses
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Noise Sensitivity
- Non Ionising Imaging
- Physics of Vision
- Physics of the Ear
- Physics of the Eye
- Radioactive Implants
- Radionuclide Imaging Techniques
- Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy
- Structure of the Ear
- Ultrasound Imaging
- X-Ray Image Processing
- X-Ray Imaging
- Modern Physics
- Bohr Model of the Atom
- Disintegration Energy
- Franck Hertz Experiment
- Mass Energy Equivalence
- Nucleus Structure
- Quantization of Energy
- Spectral Lines
- The Discovery of the Atom
- Wave Function
- Nuclear Physics
- Alpha Beta and Gamma Radiation
- Binding Energy
- Half Life
- Induced Fission
- Mass and Energy
- Nuclear Instability
- Nuclear Radius
- Radioactive Decay
- Radioactivity
- Rutherford Scattering
- Safety of Nuclear Reactors
- Oscillations
- Energy Time Graph
- Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Kinetic Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Mechanical Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Pendulum
- Period of Pendulum
- Period, Frequency and Amplitude
- Phase Angle
- Physical Pendulum
- Restoring Force
- Simple Pendulum
- Spring-Block Oscillator
- Torsional Pendulum
- Velocity
- Particle Model of Matter
- Physical Quantities and Units
- Converting Units
- Physical Quantities
- SI Prefixes
- Standard Form Physics
- Units Physics
- Use of SI Units
- Physics of Motion
- Acceleration
- Angular Acceleration
- Angular Displacement
- Angular Velocity
- Centrifugal Force
- Centripetal Force
- Displacement
- Equilibrium
- Forces of Nature Physics
- Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa Experiment
- Inclined Plane
- Inertia
- Mass in Physics
- Speed Physics
- Static Equilibrium
- Radiation
- Antiparticles
- Antiquark
- Atomic Model
- Classification of Particles
- Collisions of Electrons with Atoms
- Conservation Laws
- Electromagnetic Radiation and Quantum Phenomena
- Isotopes
- Neutron Number
- Particles
- Photons
- Protons
- Quark Physics
- Specific Charge
- The Photoelectric Effect
- Wave-Particle Duality
- Rotational Dynamics
- Angular Impulse
- Angular Kinematics
- Angular Motion and Linear Motion
- Connecting Linear and Rotational Motion
- Orbital Trajectory
- Rotational Equilibrium
- Rotational Inertia
- Satellite Orbits
- Third Law of Kepler
- Scientific Method Physics
- Data Collection
- Data Representation
- Drawing Conclusions
- Equations in Physics
- Uncertainties and Evaluations
- Space Physics
- Thermodynamics
- Heat Radiation
- Thermal Conductivity
- Thermal Efficiency
- Thermodynamic Diagram
- Thermodynamic Force
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Control
- Torque and Rotational Motion
- Centripetal Acceleration and Centripetal Force
- Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Force and Torque
- Muscle Torque
- Newton's Second Law in Angular Form
- Simple Machines
- Unbalanced Torque
- Translational Dynamics
- Centripetal Force and Velocity
- Critical Speed
- Free Fall and Terminal Velocity
- Gravitational Acceleration
- Gravitational Force
- Kinetic Friction
- Object in Equilibrium
- Orbital Period
- Resistive Force
- Spring Force
- Static Friction
- Turning Points in Physics
- Cathode Rays
- Discovery of the Electron
- Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Electron Microscopes
- Electron Specific Charge
- Length Contraction
- Michelson-Morley Experiment
- Millikan's Experiment
- Newton's and Huygens' Theories of Light
- Photoelectricity
- Relativistic Mass and Energy
- Special Relativity
- Thermionic Electron Emission
- Time Dilation
- Wave Particle Duality of Light
- Waves Physics
- Acoustics
- Applications of Ultrasound
- Applications of Waves
- Diffraction
- Diffraction Gratings
- Doppler Effect in Light
- Earthquake Shock Waves
- Echolocation
- Image Formation by Lenses
- Interference
- Light
- Longitudinal Wave
- Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
- Mirror
- Oscilloscope
- Phase Difference
- Polarisation
- Progressive Waves
- Properties of Waves
- Ray Diagrams
- Ray Tracing Mirrors
- Reflection
- Refraction
- Refraction at a Plane Surface
- Resonance in Sound Waves
- Seismic Waves
- Snell's law
- Standing Waves
- Stationary Waves
- Total Internal Reflection in Optical Fibre
- Transverse Wave
- Ultrasound
- Wave Characteristics
- Wave Speed
- Waves in Communication
- X-rays
- Work Energy and Power
- Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
- Dissipative Force
- Energy Dissipation
- Energy in Pendulum
- Force and Potential Energy
- Force vs. Position Graph
- Orbiting Objects
- Potential Energy Graphs and Motion
- Spring Potential Energy
- Total Mechanical Energy
- Translational Kinetic Energy
- Work Energy Theorem
- Work and Kinetic Energy

**Mechanics **and **materials **are closely connected. Mechanics studies the forces that produce motion, mechanical work, and concepts such as momentum and energy. A classical approach to mechanics includes Newton’s laws of forces interacting in bodies, which can be static or in motion.

The study of materials deals with the properties of solids, focusing on their mechanical properties and how these change depending on the forces interacting with them.

Mechanics is the area of physics that deals with the analysis of bodies, whether static or in motion. Mechanics can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. **Kinematics** studies the movements and displacement of the body, while **dynamics** focuses on the forces producing these movements.

Mechanics also studies the changes in the energy of a body in movement as well as the work produced by this object. A large portion of the classical study of dynamics is also dedicated to Newton’s Laws. Sometimes the combination of both is called ‘Newtonian Mechanics’.

The analysis of the changes in velocity, acceleration, or displacement of an object is an integral part of the area of **kinematics**. For this, objects can move in **linear motion** (linear kinematics) or **circular motion** (rotational kinematics). Examples of both can be found below:

**Linear kinematics**Imagine the movement of a ball over a straight rail or a car on a straight road. Velocity, displacement, or acceleration in these systems occur over just one axis and in only two directions, which simplifies analysis and calculations.

**Rotational kinematics** Think of the movement of a seat in a carousel or a satellite over the earth. These systems have more complex interactions between the positions and movements of their constituents. As an example, two objects rotating at the same speed around the same centre cover different distances by virtue of being at different distances from the centre. In linear systems, by comparison, two objects at the same speed cover the same distance, even if the directions and axis are not the same.

Rotational kinematics also uses a different set of quantities and a different system of coordinates to make its work easier. While linear kinematics uses a classical 3D cartesian system, rotational kinematics normally uses a cylindrical system or even a spherical one.

For dynamics, the displacement or velocity of a body is not important, but rather how it reacts to changes and why. Newton’s laws of motion are foundational for dynamics. We will introduce them very briefly below.

An object remains in its same state of motion unless it is disturbed by a force.

The rate of change in the momentum (per time) of an object is equal to the force acting on the object.

When two bodies exert forces over each other, the forces are equal in magnitude but have the opposite direction.

The combination of concepts of dynamics and Newton’s laws of forces interacting in bodies allows us to understand systems where multiple forces act on a body or where two bodies interact with each other.

These three concepts are integral to the study of dynamics.

Momentum is the product of the mass of an object and its velocity. When an object accelerates or decelerates, its momentum changes. Momentum is important in the analysis of some interactions where objects exchange energy by impacting each other, as the conservation of momentum applies. One example is an inelastic collision.

In an inelastic collision, the overall momentum of the objects before and after the collisions must be the same.

This is another important concept in mechanics. Objects can have kinetic and potential energy. In most systems, the rule of energy conservation applies, meaning that the total energy of a system is the same before and after something happened within it.

This is the displacement produced by a force. Any work produced is directly linked to the forces moving the object.

**Vectors** and **scalars** are two mathematical concepts widely used in mechanics. They allow us to express quantities that only have a magnitude as ‘scalars’, while quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction are known as ‘vectors’.

Vectors are particularly useful in dynamics, as they make it possible for a system of forces interacting with a body to be represented more easily. The representation uses a line along the path the force is being applied and an arrow to indicate its direction. A classic example of vectors and forces is the case of a body moving up a slope.

A car is being pulled up a slope by a security car. The steepness of the slope is 30 degrees. The force of gravity (red arrow) pulls the car down along the vertical direction.

The gravitational force (red arrow) can be split up into two components (yellow arrows), one operating in the perpendicular direction to the slope and the other operating along the slope.

The force causes a response from the slope equal in magnitude but opposite in direction (pink arrow). The sum of these forces is zero, leaving as the resulting force pulling the car down the slope. The security car produces a force (blue arrow), pulling the car up the hill.

If the service car’s force is greater than the horizontal component of the gravity , the car moves upwards. If is smaller than , the car rolls down the hill.

The system of forces can be seen in the equations below:

If , the car gets pulled up the slope. If , the car rolls down the slope.

The study of materials and their mechanical properties is an important aspect of physics. The properties of a material can tell us how much force an object can withstand and how it will react to the forces acting on it. In mechanics, objects are non-deformable. However, in reality, the forces acting on a body deform and affect it.

**Bulk properties** are characteristics of any material that are the result of the atoms of that material working together as a ‘bulk’. Properties such as elasticity, density, hardness, and conductivity are all bulk properties.

These arise as part of the internal mechanisms of the atoms that compose an object. Consider elasticity: the reasons why materials are elastic differ. Elasticity in metals is produced by the change in the atomic structure of the material, while in polymers, it is a product of the stretching of the chains that compose the material.

Let’s briefly look at some bulk properties.

**Elasticity **is defined as the ability of a material to resist deformation after a force is applied to it. The material, in this case, can come back to its original shape or be deformed. Please note that the elasticity of a material has a limit. Any elastic material will deform irreversibly after a certain amount of force is applied.

**Hardness **is defined as the resistance of a material to being locally deformed, usually demonstrated by making an indentation with a pointy object. An interesting relationship is that sometimes the hardness of a material is inverse to its elasticity. Very often, hard materials are not elastic, and elastic materials are not hard.

**Conductivity **is defined as the ease with which a material conducts electrical charges. The conductivity is related to the atomic structure of the material.

Within the subject of bulk properties, Young’s modulus is an important characteristic that tells us how easily a material will deform under forces that produce compression or tension.

The formula to calculate the modulus is:

Here, σ is the axial stress or the force per unit of length measured in Pascals, while ε is the proportional deformation equal to the length after the force is applied, divided by the original length of the object.

- Mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the forces acting on an object and its movements.
- Mechanics can be divided into dynamics and kinematics. Dynamics studies the displacement, trajectory, velocity, and acceleration of an object. Kinematics studies the forces producing the movement and how the object reacts to them.
- Newton’s laws describe how a body reacts to forces altering its state of movement.
- Materials, specifically their properties and responses to forces, are also a subject of study in physics. Important physical properties include elasticity, hardness, conductivity, and density.
- An important characteristic of a material is its Young’s modulus. This tells us the rate of deformation on a body produced by a force.

There is no one measure to know which material is the most elastic. There is, however, an interesting fact that will contradict your notion of elasticity, which is that steel is more elastic than rubber.

Elasticity is the property of a material to resist deformation and return to its original shape. Steel can resist higher forces without deforming irreversibly than rubber or plastics. The most elastic material, in this case, is the stiffest one. (Although it can still deform a little under very large forces.)

More about Mechanics and Materials

Be perfectly prepared on time with an individual plan.

Test your knowledge with gamified quizzes.

Create and find flashcards in record time.

Create beautiful notes faster than ever before.

Have all your study materials in one place.

Upload unlimited documents and save them online.

Identify your study strength and weaknesses.

Set individual study goals and earn points reaching them.

Stop procrastinating with our study reminders.

Earn points, unlock badges and level up while studying.

Create flashcards in notes completely automatically.

Create the most beautiful study materials using our templates.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

Over 10 million students from across the world are already learning smarter.

Get Started for Free