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Psychology

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Psychology

Psychology was first referred to as “the study of the soul” from the Modern Latin psychologia. Since then, psychology has grown into a scientific discipline investigating the mind and behavior.

Psychology was only accepted as a science in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt established the first-ever psychology lab. Now, psychology has become a respected discipline that is applied to diagnose and treat mental health conditions ranging from addiction to psychopathy.

The subject can also help us understand ourselves. As the “study of the soul”, psychology makes us consider why we behave in certain ways. Psychologists study how our relationships with our parents, environments, cultures, and biology affect us.

Psychology topics and learning objectives

Psychology can help us understand the psychological processes that go into forming our relationships with others and our society in general. This can be very useful, so every psychologist should know these key topics:

  • Memory
  • Social influence
  • Attachment
  • Psychopathology (the study of mental illness)
  • Biopsychology
  • Research methods
  • Data handling
  • Issues and debates

As humans evolve, so does our behavior and the challenges we face. With this process comes more for psychologists to study. Depending on your school and teachers, there are a number of optional modules you may come across when studying psychology, such as:

  • Relationships
  • Schizophrenia
  • Aggression
  • Addiction
  • Eating habits
  • Gender
  • Cognition and development
  • Stress
  • Forensic psychology

Approaches in psychology

In psychology, there are different ways of explaining the human mind and behavior; these are known as approaches.

There are five main approaches that we will study for this topic. These are the psychodynamic approach, the behaviorist approach, the humanistic approach, the cognitive approach and the biological approach. These approaches suggest that human behavior is influenced by different stimuli, from our thought processes to our genes.

Tip: learn the pros and cons of each approach to be able to evaluate them

  • Approaches
  • Origins of Psychology
  • Wundt and Introspection
  • The Emergence of Psychology as a Science
  • Learning Approaches
  • Behaviourism
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
  • The Cognitive Approach
  • The Emergence of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • The Biological Approach
  • The Psychodynamic Approach
  • Humanistic Psychology

Psychology: Memory

Memory is fundamental to our lives, learning, and minds. In this topic, we will learn about memory stores, including the duration and capacity of memory. Memories are important, but what happens when we lose them?

Finally, the memory topic looks at the impact of psychological studies of memory on eyewitness testimony. This practical application of psychology demonstrates how psychology as a science can help better society.

  • Memory
  • Multi-store Model of Memory
  • Short-Term Memory
  • Long-Term Memory
  • Support for the Multi-Store Model of Memory
  • Testing Features of Memory
  • Duration Studies
  • Capacity Studies
  • Coding Psychology
  • Working Memory Model
  • Support for the Working Memory Model
  • Forgetting in Psychology
  • Studies on Interference
  • Cue-Dependent Forgetting
  • Applied Memory Research: eyewitness testimony
  • Eyewitness Testimony: misinformation
  • Eyewitness Testimony: post-event discussion
  • Factors that Affect the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony
  • Cognitive Interview
  • Improve Memory

Psychology: Social Influence

As we previously mentioned, some psychologists think that our behavior is influenced by society. Social influences may put extra pressure on us to behave in a certain way. The social influence topic explores how behaviors such as conformity and obedience are influenced by situational, authoritarian and informational pressures.

Major studies such as the Stanford Prison Experiment and Asch’s line test will be used alongside theoretical fundamentals to give you a better understanding of social influence on psychology:

  • Social Influence
  • Majority Influence: conformity
  • Explanations for conformity
  • Informational Influence and Sherif (1935)
  • Normative Influence and Asch (1951)
  • Conformity to Social Roles
  • The Stanford Prison Experiment
  • BBC Prison Study
  • Obedience
  • Milgram’s Experiment
  • Explanations for Obedience
  • Milgram’s Agency Theory
  • Dispositional Influence Adorno (1950)
  • Situational Influence
  • Resistance to Social Influence
  • Minority Influence and Social Change: Moscovici (1968)
  • Social Impact Theory

Psychology: Attachment

Attachment in psychology refers to our relationships with our caregivers, such as our mums, dads or other carers. In this topic, we will study the different types of attachment and what they mean in adulthood.

We will also look at a few famous experiments into attachment, such as the Romanian orphan studies and Ainsworth’s Strange Situation:

  • Attachment
  • Caregiver-infant interactions
  • Attachment Figures
  • Stages of Attachment
  • Condon & Sander (1974)
  • Animal Studies of Attachment
  • Explanations of Attachment
  • Learning Theory
  • Bowlby’s Monotropic Theory (1969)
  • Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
  • Bowlby’s Theory of Maternal Deprivation
  • Romanian Orphan Studies
  • Attachment and Later Relationships
  • Hazan and Shaver (1987)

Psychology: Psychopathology

Psychopathology is the study of mental illnesses. This topic will explain how mental illnesses are defined and how we define ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behavior. In particular, we will look at phobias, depression, and OCD, including their characteristics, explanations, and treatments.

Tip: compare the different treatments and explanations of mental illnesses to understand how psychology can help people:

  • Psychopathology
  • Definitions of Abnormality
  • Phobias
  • Depression
  • OCD
  • Phobias Treatment
  • Cognitive Approach
  • Biological Approach and OCD Treatment

Psychology: Biopsychology

Biopsychology refers to how we can use biology to explain our behavior. From the nervous system to neural structures and sleep cycles, biology influences our behavior in ways you may not expect. In this topic, you can find explanations and research into biopsychology. These include post mortem examinations, split-brain research, and brain scans.

  • Biopsychology
  • Nervous System Divisions
  • Neuron Structure and Function
  • Process of Synaptic Transmission
  • The Function of the Endocrine System
  • Fight-or-Flight Response and the Role of Adrenaline
  • Neurotransmitters
  • The Brain
  • Localization of Function in the Brain
  • Hemispheric Lateralisation and Split-Brain Research
  • Motor Centres
  • Plasticity and Functional Recovery of the Brain After Trauma
  • Ways of Studying the Brain
  • Functional Magnetic Resonance
  • Electroencephalograms (EEGs) and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
  • Post Mortem Examination
  • Biological Rhythms
  • Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms
  • Sleep-Wake Cycle

Psychology: Research methods

This large but essential topic takes you through the research methods used by psychologists when studying human behavior. In particular, we will look at the types of experiments, designs, variables, and ethical and quality criteria.

Tip: Studysmarter uses diagrams and notes to simplify even the most complex topics:

  • Research Methods
  • Research Methods
  • Experimental Method
  • Types of Experiment
  • Lab Experiment
  • Field Experiment
  • Natural Experiment
  • Observational Techniques and Design
  • Self-Report Techniques
  • Correlational Studies
  • Case Studies
  • Interviews
  • Scientific Processes
  • Aims and Hypotheses
  • Sampling Psychology
  • Pilot Studies and the Aims of Piloting
  • Variables
  • Manipulation and Control of Variables
  • Independent, Dependent, Extraneous and Confounding Variables
  • Operationalization of Variables
  • Experimental Designs
  • Independent Group Designs
  • Repeated Measures Design
  • Observational Design
  • Self-Report Design
  • Questionnaire Construction
  • Ethical Issues and Ways of Dealing With Them
  • Implications of Psychological Research
  • Peer Review and Economic Applications
  • Scientific Research
  • Features of Science
  • Quality Criteria: Validity
  • Quality Criteria: Reliability
  • Quality Criteria: Objectivity and the Empirical Method
  • Paradigms and Falsifiability
  • Scientific Report

Psychology: Data handling and analysis

After research, psychologists must process the data they have collected. This process depends on the type of data collected, the measures used, and the type of analysis. Key topics include measures of central tendency, levels of measurement, inferential testing and more.

  • Data Handling and Analysis
  • Types of Data
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Measures of Central Tendency
  • Measures of Dispersion
  • Presentation of Quantitative Data
  • Distributions
  • Analysis and Interpretation of Correlations
  • Scientific Data Analysis
  • Levels of Measurement
  • Content Analysis
  • Case Studies
  • Thematic Analysis
  • Inferential Testing
  • Probability and Significance
  • Statistical Tests
  • Non-Parametric Tests

Psychology: Issues and debates

When we study psychology, we must be aware of some of the issues which can affect research, such as biases, determinism, and ethics. One of the main issues you may already be aware of is nature versus nurture debate. This refers to the idea that our behavior is either influenced by our genes or by our environment. You will explore this idea, its implications for research, and much more in this topic.

  • Issues and Debates
  • Biases
  • Culture Bias and Sub-Culture Bias
  • Gender Bias
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Cross-Cultural Research
  • Philosophical Debates in Psychology
  • Free Will and Determinism
  • Reductionism and Holism
  • Nature vs. Nurture Debate
  • Interactionist Approach
  • Nature-Nurture Methods
  • Nature-Nurture Approaches
  • Idiographic and Nomothetic Approaches
  • Ethics and Socially Sensitive Research

What else do psychologists study?

Although these are the core topics for any psychology student, there is a whole range of interesting topics studied by psychologists that we can look at, from relationships to addiction.

Psychology: Relationships

Forming relationships with others is one of humanity’s most fundamental behaviors. But the way we choose our relationships has changed dramatically over thousands of years. As a result, psychologists are concerned with why we choose our partners, whether they believe this is due to an innate, evolutionary forces or other factors such as location or personal attitudes. Psychologists are also interested in why relationships break down. Some psychologists think that people break up due to inequity; others think they break up in gradual stages.

Relationships have changed in recent years, and increasingly, they are formed online. What does this mean for us psychologically? For instance, do we form relationships faster or slower? With greater or less intimacy?

  • Relationships
  • Sexual Relationships
  • Sexual Selection and Human Reproductive Behaviour
  • Intersexual and Intrasexual Selection
  • Factors Affecting Attraction
  • Evaluation of Self-Disclosure Theory
  • Physical Attractiveness: Halo Effect and Matching Hypothesis
  • The Filter Theory
  • Romantic Relationships
  • Social Exchange Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Rusbult’s Investment Model
  • Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown
  • Virtual Relationships in Social Media
  • Self-disclosure in Virtual Relationships
  • Absence of Gating
  • Parasocial Relationships
  • The Attachment Theory Explanation

Psychology: Gender

In recent years, the way in which we view gender as a society has radically changed, but has psychology caught up?

The study of gender in psychology covers topics from androgyny to stereotypes whilst investigating the influences on gendered behavior, such as biology, conditioning, and thought processes.

The psychological study of gender is also concerned with gender dysphoria, androgyny, and atypical chromosome patterns as ‘atypical’ expressions of conventional ideas of gender.

  • Relationships
  • Sex, gender, and androgyny
  • Bem’s Sex Role Inventory
  • The Role of Chromosomes and Hormones
  • Klinefelter’s Syndrome and Turner’s Syndrome.
  • Hormone imbalance during development
  • Cognitive Explanations of Gender Development
  • Kohlberg’s 1966 Theory
  • Gender Schema Theory
  • Psychodynamic Gender Theory
  • Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex
  • Social Learning Theory
  • The Influence of Culture on Gender Roles
  • Media and Gender
  • Atypical Gender Development
  • Gender Dysphoria

Cognition and Development

How do we develop from babies who cannot speak, walk or write to fully grown adults who can investigate complex psychological processes and write full-length novels? This is known as cognitive development.

Psychologists have investigated this phenomenon for years, and there are many theories of cognitive development formulated by Piaget, Vygotsky, Selman, and Baillargeon. These theories explain a wide range of cognitive development, from intellectual development to social cognition, perspective-taking, and more.

  • Cognition and Development
  • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Stages of Intellectual Development
  • Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Baillargeon’s Explanation of Early Infant Abilities
  • Violation of Expectation Research
  • The Development of Social Cognition
  • Selman’s Levels of Perspective-Taking
  • Theory of Mind
  • The Sally-Anne Test
  • The Role of the Mirror Neuron System in Social Cognition

Schizophrenia

In the popular imagination, schizophrenia is presented as hearing voices and thinking seeing things that aren’t there, but studying the illness psychologically can reveal that schizophrenia is much more.

Psychologists study the characteristics, influences and treatment of schizophrenia. Many think the condition has a biological basis that can be treated using drug therapy. Meanwhile, cognitive psychologists think that the illness has a cognitive basis and thus treat it using cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy. Perhaps, the best way to approach mental illnesses would be by combining all three approaches.

  • Schizophrenia
  • Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia
  • Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Reliability and Validity in Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia
  • Biological Explanations for Schizophrenia
  • Genetics
  • Dopamine Hypothesis
  • Neural Correlates
  • Psychological Explanations for Schizophrenia
  • Dysfunctional Family
  • Cognitive Explanations
  • Treatment for Schizophrenia
  • Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
  • Family Therapy
  • Token Economy
  • The Diathesis-Stress Model

Eating behavior

At one point, humans simply ate to survive, but as time has gone on, we have more and more choices at teatime. Not only this, but we have developed illnesses that affect our eating habits, such as anorexia and bulimia. But why has humanity’s attitude towards eating changed so drastically? Psychologists attempt to explain this through evolutionary psychology and learning theory.

As previously mentioned, we can also experience illnesses that affect our eating habits, such as anorexia nervosa and obesity. Psychologists have attempted to explain this illness through family theory, social learning theory, and cognitive and biological processes. Similarly, researchers have cited our biology and psychology as possible reasons for obesity.
We’ve all heard of crazy diets like the apple or the keto diet, but why do we “go on” diets? And why do these diets fail most of the time? To explain these phenomena, researchers have created restraint theory and the boundary model.

  • Eating Behaviour
  • Explanations for Food Preference
  • Control of Eating Behaviours
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Biological Explanations for Anorexia Nervosa
  • Psychological Explanations for Anorexia Nervosa
  • Family Systems Theory
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Cognitive Theory
  • Obesity
  • Biological Explanations for Obesity
  • Psychological Explanations for Obesity
  • Restraint Theory, Disinhibition and the Boundary Model
  • Explanations for Success and Failure of Dieting

Stress

Unfortunately, stress is a part of everyday life, making it an important phenomenon for psychologists to study. Essential to this study is the biological systems that influence stress responses. Psychologists also study the role of hormones and how they influence an illness.

The sources of stress differ for each individual and can be small, frequent events, such as missing the bus, or big life changes such as the death of a loved one. The effect of these stresses varies depending on an individual’s ability to deal with stress due to general hardiness, physiological stress management and stress inoculation therapy.

  • Stress
  • Physiology of Stress
  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
  • The Sympathomedullary Pathway
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System
  • Role of Cortisol
  • Illness Caused by Stress
  • Sources of Stress
  • Daily Hassles
  • Hassles and Uplifts Scale
  • Evaluation of Life Events as a Source of Stress
  • Workplace Stress
  • Measuring Stress
  • Skin Conductance Response
  • Self-Report Scales
  • The Social Readjustment Rating Scale
  • Research of the effects of life events on health
  • Physiological Measures of Stress
  • Individual Differences in Stress
  • Personality Types and Associated Behaviours
  • Hardiness
  • Stress Management
  • Physiological Methods of Stress Management
  • Stress Inoculation Therapy
  • Biofeedback
  • Gender Differences in Coping with Stress
  • Social Support in Coping with Stress

Aggression

Many psychologists explain aggression through biology and genetics. Others view aggression from an ethological perspective (explained through animal behavior) and use evolutionary psychology to explain aggression as a survival mechanism. Another approach to aggression is learning theory. Famous studies of aggression include Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment, but psychologists also study aggression in real-life situations such as prisons and computer games.

  • Aggression
  • Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression
  • Limbic System
  • Serotonin Research
  • Testosterone Research
  • Cortisol Research
  • Genetic Origins of Aggression
  • Basic Evidence of Genetic Influences on Aggression
  • Genetic Research on Serotonin
  • The Warrior Gene
  • Genetic Research on Testosterone
  • Gender and Aggression
  • Genetic Criticism
  • Ethological Explanations of Aggression
  • Ethology
  • Fixed Action Patterns
  • Innate Releasing Mechanisms
  • The Hydraulic Model of Instinctive Behaviour: Lorenz (1950)
  • Evolution of Human Aggression
  • Aggression is Adaptive
  • Intergroup Aggression
  • Intra-Group Behaviour
  • Criticism of Evolutionary Psychology
  • Social-Psychological Explanation of Aggression
  • Bobo Doll Experiment
  • Deindividuation
  • Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
  • Institutional Aggression in the Context of Prisons
  • Sykes Deprivation Mode
  • Dysfunctional Institutions
  • The Importation Model
  • Media Influences on Aggression
  • Influence of Computer Games
  • Cognitive Priming
  • Desensitisation and Disinhibition
  • Evaluation of Media Studies

Forensic Psychology

When you read the phrase ‘forensic psychology’, TV shows like CSI might come to mind, but in reality, forensic psychology is much more than that. Forensic psychology can help us define, understand, investigate and manage crime.

There are many explanations of why crime occurs, according to forensic psychologists. Some think that crime is biological, whereas others think it is psychological. Some even think that it has a cognitive or psychodynamic basis.

Studying forensic psychology can help prevent crime through behavior modification and anger management.

Addiction

We’ve all seen viral videos of people addicted to eating rocks, collecting memorabilia or smoking 100 cigarettes a day, but what is the psychology behind these addictions?

Since addiction was classified as an illness, psychologists have sought to define addiction, identify its causes and offer possible treatments of the condition.

Psychologists have identified multiple risk factors of addiction, such as genetic vulnerability, personality, social influences and stress. More specifically, we can use brain neurochemistry and learning theory to explain why people become addicted to nicotine. Meanwhile, psychologists explain gambling addiction using learning theory and cognitive theory.

Many researchers have developed theories of addiction, such as the theory of planned behavior and the six-stage model of behavior change. Psychologists have also developed forms of treating addiction such as drug therapy, behavioral interventions, and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  • Addiction
  • Describing Addiction
  • Physical and Psychological Dependence
  • Tolerance and Withdrawal Syndrome
  • Risk Factors for Addiction
  • Explanations for Nicotine Addiction
  • Explanations for Gambling Addiction
  • Reducing Addiction
  • Addiction Treatment Theories

What topics are studied in Psychology?

Psychology is an option chosen by a lot of students. The psychology course is an in-depth look into human psychology, with topics from how our biology shapes our thought processes to how mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, eating disorders, and addiction occur.

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Final Psychology Quiz

Question

What are the main subdisciplines of Behavioural psychology?



Show answer

Answer

There are four main subdisciplines of behavioural psychology. 

  • Applied behaviour analysis;
  • Cognitive therapy;
  • Behavioural therapy; 
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy.

Show question

Question

When was behaviourism established?



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Answer

Behaviourism was established in 1913 when John B. Watson published his article “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It”.

Show question

Question

What is behavioural psychology?



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Answer

Behavioural psychology studies the interactions among thoughts, emotions, perceptions and behaviours. It investigates how to change problematic behaviours—Taking action on learning and changing into positive and healthier behaviour. 

Show question

Question

What is Operant Conditioning? 

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Answer

Operant Conditioning is a theory developed by Skinner based on experiments on rats. This is a method of learning based on reinforcements and punishments. An association occurs in operant conditioning between a behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour.

Show question

Question

What are the fields outside 

psychology that the 

cognitive approach applies to?

Show answer

Answer

Cognitive psychology has been integrated into different branches of psychology and other modern disciplines such as cognitive science, linguistics and economics. The domain of cognitive psychology overlaps with cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach that includes studies of non-human subjects and artificial intelligence.

Show question

Question

The affirmation, (In 1979 Wilhelm Wundt  opened the institute for experimental psychology, even before psychology was considered a discipline in its own right, psychology was considered an experimental branch of philosophy.) Is it True or False?

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

The theories around the psychodynamic 

approach to therapy originated from 

Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

What is obedience?




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Answer

Obedience is a specific type of social influence on human behaviour; it is when people follow an explicit command given by a legitimate authority.



Show question

Question

Is it correct that Carl Rogers believed that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs?

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

What are the advantages of obedience?




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Answer

Obedience helps maintain order and structure in society and helps the general public maintain shared societal values



Show question

Question

What are the disadvantages of obedience?




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Answer

Obedience has led to dangerous outcomes if the authority figure is seeking to harm a person or group of people.



Show question

Question

The biological approach assumes 

that all human behaviour has a 

biological origin.

Show answer

Answer

True

Show question

Question

According to Milgram’s Agency Theory, when does obedience occur?




Show answer

Answer

Obedience occurs when people are in an agentic state. This means the individual does not feel responsible for their actions as they are acting as an ‘agent’ of the authority figure that has given them a command.



Show question

Question

What is the relevant study for Milgram’s Agency Theory?




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Answer

The relevant study is Milgram’s shock experiment (1964).



Show question

Question

What was the name given by Adorno for the influence of personality on obedience?




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Answer

The name for the influence of personality on obedience is dispositional influence. 



Show question

Question

What is the relevant study for Adorno’s dispositional influence explanation?




Show answer

Answer

The relevant study is Adorno’s dispositional explanation study (1950).



Show question

Question

Operant conditioning is a technique applied to behavioural training. Essentially it occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that occurs naturally.

Show answer

Answer

False

Show question

Question

What is situational influence?




Show answer

Answer

Situational influence measures the impact of environmental factor(s) on obedience.



Show question

Question

How did the situational influences of the proximity and uniform of the authority figure affect obedience in the variation studies?




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Answer

Obedience levels decreased in the variation studies when the authority figure was not in close proximity to the participant and when the authority figure wore everyday clothes instead of a laboratory coat.



Show question

Question

It was found that there were higher levels of obedience in a study conducted at an office building than at the campus of Yale University. Is this true or false?


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Answer

This is false. There were lower levels of obedience when the study was conducted in an office building. 



Show question

Question

Which explanation for obedience discusses the influence of personality on obedience?


Show answer

Answer

The explanation of dispositional influence discusses how different types of personalities affect obedience. It states that those with authoritarian personalities are more likely to obey as they favour authoritarian systems.



Show question

Question

Why were variations of Milgram’s shock experiment (1964) held?




Show answer

Answer

Researchers wanted to see whether situational influences, namely environmental changes, affected obedience levels. They aimed to test whether factors such as the location of the study, uniform and proximity of the authority figure had an impact on obedience.



Show question

Question

What are the key components of the Agency Theory?



Show answer

Answer

The key components of the Agency Theory are the agentic state and legitimate authority. The theory states that obedience occurs when we act in an agentic state. This means the individual does not feel responsible for their actions as they are simply acting as an ‘agent’ of the authority figure. We are more likely to obey if we have a legitimate authority. 



Show question

Question

What is schizophrenia?

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Answer

Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder involving psychosis, known for its positive (adding an experience) and negative (taking away an experience) symptoms.

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Question

What classification systems are used to diagnose schizophrenia?

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Answer

The ICD and the DSM. The ICD is used worldwide, primarily in Europe, and the DSM is used primarily in America. 

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Question

What are the symptoms referred to in schizophrenia?

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Answer

They are referred to as positive (adding an experience) and negative symptoms (taking away an experience).

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Question

What are some examples of positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

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Answer

Hallucinations. Delusions. Disorganised Speech. Psychomotor Disturbances.

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Question

What are some examples of negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

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Answer

Avolition. Affective Flattening. Alogia. Anhedonia.

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Question

What are the main biological explanations for schizophrenia?

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Answer

There are three main biological explanations for schizophrenia, these are genetics, the dopamine hypothesis and neural correlates.

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Question

How do genes affect schizophrenia?

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Answer

By making someone more likely to develop schizophrenia due to their genes. They are predisposed to developing schizophrenia.

Show question

Question

What are neural correlates?

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Answer

Neural correlates are instances where brain structure differences correlate with some psychological disorders or symptoms.

Show question

Question

What are the psychological explanations for schizophrenia?

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Answer

The main explanations are family dysfunctions and cognitive explanations.

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Question

What are the main types of family dysfunctions? 

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Answer

The schizophrenogenic mother, the double bind theory, and expressed emotions (EE).

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Question

What are the different types of treatments for schizophrenia?

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Answer

Treatments can include biological therapies and psychological therapies, for instance, CBT is a psychological therapy, and using typical antipsychotics is a biological therapy. 

Show question

Question

What are the biological treatments for schizophrenia?

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Answer

Antipsychotic drug treatments, known as typical and atypical antipsychotics. 

Show question

Question

What are the psychological therapies?

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Answer

CBT. Family therapy. Token economies. 

Show question

Question

What is the interactionist approach?

Show answer

Answer

The interactionist approach is the combination of biological and psychological treatments for schizophrenia.

Show question

Question

What is the most well-known interactionist approach?

Show answer

Answer

The diathesis-stress model is the most well-known interactionist approach.

Show question

Question

Who was Wilhelm Wundt?

Show answer

Answer

The first person to be considered a psychologist, who established psychology as a separate, scientific discipline for the first time.


Show question

Question

What is introspection?


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Answer

Observing and examining your own thoughts and feelings.

Show question

Question

What is one practise associated with mental health that uses introspection?


Show answer

Answer

Mindfulness

Show question

Question

What type of therapy can benefit from the use of introspection?


Show answer

Answer

Psychodynamic

Show question

Question

Why was introspection considered scientific at the time?


Show answer

Answer

it uses standardized instructions and controlled conditions


Show question

Question

Why is introspection subject to a lot of bias?


Show answer

Answer

It is a very subjective method, and relies on the introspectionist’s own perceptions of their thoughts

Show question

Question

Why is introspection considered to have low internal validity?


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Answer

Introspection itself may influence our natural thought processes, meaning that the method may not measure what it sets out to, which would be considered low internal validity

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Question

 Why is introspection considered to have low external validity?


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Answer

 The approach can only be applied to certain groups of people, meaning that results found from introspection cannot be generalized.

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Question

How can introspection be applied?


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Answer

In psychotherapy or mindfulness practice.

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Question

When was the first psychological laboratory founded?


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Answer

 1879


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Question

Where was the first psychological laboratory founded?


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Answer

Germany

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Question

 Which philosopher first proposed the idea of introspection?


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Answer

Plato

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