A Recording lump-sum asset purchases, depreciation, and disposals Ellie Johnson Associates surveys American eating habits. The company’s accounts include Land, Buildings, Office Equipment, and Communication Equipment, with a separate Accumulated Depreciation account for each depreciable asset. During 2018, Ellie Johnson Associates completed the following transactions:
Jan. 1 Purchased office equipment, $113,000. Paid $80,000 cash and financed the remainder with a note payable.
Apr. 1 Acquired land and communication equipment in a lump-sum purchase. Total cost was $310,000 paid in cash. An independent appraisal valued the land at $244,125 and the communication equipment at $81,375.
Sep. 1 Sold a building that cost $520,000 (accumulated depreciation of $285,000 through December 31 of the preceding year). Ellie Johnson Associates received $420,000 cash from the sale of the building. Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis. The building has a 40-year useful life and a residual value of $25,000.
Dec. 31 Recorded depreciation as follows:
Communication equipment is depreciated by the straight-line method over a five-year life with zero residual value.
Office equipment is depreciated using the double-declining-balance method over five years with a $1,000 residual value.
Record the transactions in the journal of Ellie Johnson Associate
A business entity will generate a profit of $193,250 on the sale of the building.
The expenses charged for the purpose of reporting the decline in the value of the fixed assets acquired by the company are known as depreciation expenses. Such expenses are reported in the statement reporting net income.
Accounts & Explanation
(To record the purchase of office equipment)
Profit on sale
Depreciation expenses – communication equipment
Accumulated depreciation – communication equipment
Depreciation expenses – office equipment
Accumulated depreciation – office equipment
Appraisal Fair Value
Total Appraisal Fair Value
Allocation of cash:
Allocated cost $
2. Depreciation of communication equipment:
Arca Salvage, Inc. purchased equipment for $10,000. Arca recorded total depreciation of $8,000 on the equipment. Assume that Arca exchanged the old equipment for new equipment, paying $4,000 cash. The fair market value of the new equipment is $5,000. Journalize Arca’s exchange of equipment. Assume this exchange has commercial substance.
Question: On January 1, Orange Manufacturing paid $40,000 for a patent. Although it gives legal protection for 20 years, the patent is expected to provide a competitive advantage for only eight years. Assuming the straight-line method of amortization, record the journal entry for amortization for Year 1.
Question: Western Bank & Trust purchased land and a building for the lump sum of $3,000,000. To get the maximum tax deduction, Western allocated 90% of the purchase price to the building and only 10% to the land. A more realistic allocation would have been 70% to the building and 30% to the land.
1. Explain the tax advantage of allocating too much to the building and too little to the land.
2. Was Western’s allocation ethical? If so, state why. If not, why not? Identify who was harmed.
This problem continues the Canyon Canoe Company situation from Chapter 8. Amber and Zack Wilson are continuing to review business practices. Currently, they are reviewing the company’s property, plant, and equipment and have gathered the following information:
Estimated Residual value
Monthly Depreciation Expense
Nov. 3, 2018
Dec 1, 2018
Dec 1, 2018
Dec 2, 2018
Mar. 2, 2019
MAR. 3, 2019
*SL = Straight@line; DDB = Double@declining@balance
1. Calculate the amount of monthly depreciation expense for the computer and office furniture for 2019.
2. For each asset, determine the book value as of December 31, 2018. Then, calculate the depreciation expense for the first six months of 2019 and the book value as of June 30, 2019.
3. Prepare a partial balance sheet showing Property, Plant, and Equipment as of June 30, 2019.
Jim Reed manages a fleet of utility trucks for a rural county government. He’s been in his job for 30 years, and he knows where the angles are. He makes sure that when new trucks are purchased, the residual value is set as low as possible. Then, when they become fully depreciated, they are sold off by the county at residual value. Jim makes sure his buddies in the construction business are first in line for the bargain sales, and they make sure he gets a little something back. Recently, a new county commissioner was elected with vows to cut expenses for the taxpayers. Unlike other commissioners, this man has a business degree, and he is coming to visit Jim tomorrow.
1. When a business sells a fully depreciated asset for its residual value, is a gain or loss recognized?
2. How do businesses determine what residual values to use for their various assets? Are there “hard and fast” rules for residual values?
3. How would an organization prevent the kind of fraud depicted here?
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