Question:Identify three situations in which accounting measures are based on present values. Do these present value applications involve single sums or annuities, or both single sums and annuities? Explain.
The situation in which present value measures are used in accounting includes:
Notes receivables and payable
Pensions and another deferred compensation arrangement
These involve the single sum transaction.
There are various situations in which accounting measures are based on present values.
Notes Receivables and Payables: It includes present value annuities, when there are periodic interest payments are involved.
Leases: It involves the measurement of assets and obligations which are usually based on the present value of annuities.
Pensions and another deferred compensation arrangement: It involves the discounted future annuity payments that are paid to the employees on their retirement.
The notes receivables and payables involve single sums and leases also involve single sums.
Single sums refer to that single amount of money that either exists now or will exist in the future.
Consolidated Natural Gas Company (CNG), with corporate headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is one of the largest producers, transporters, distributors, and marketers of natural gas in North America.
Periodically, the company experiences a decrease in the value of its gas- and oil-producing properties, and a special charge to income was recorded in order to reduce the carrying value of those assets.
Assume the following information. In 2016, CNG estimated the cash inflows from its oil- and gas-producing properties to be $375,000 per year. During 2017, the write-downs described above caused the estimate to be decreased to $275,000 per year. Production costs (cash outflows) associated with all these properties were estimated to be $125,000 per year in 2016, but this amount was revised to $155,000 per year in 2017.
Instructions (Assume that all cash flows occur at the end of the year.)
(a) Calculate the present value of net cash flows for 2016–2018 (three years), using the 2016 estimates and a 10% discount factor.
(b) Calculate the present value of net cash flows for 2017–2019 (three years), using the 2017 estimates and a 10% discount factor.
(c) Compare the results using the two estimates. Is information on future cash flows from oil- and gas-producing properties useful, considering that the estimates must be revised each year? Explain.
Presented below are three unrelated situations.
(a) Dwayne Wade Company recently signed a lease for a new office building, for a lease period of 10 years. Under the lease agreement, a security deposit of $12,000 is made, with the deposit to be returned at the expiration of the lease, with interest compounded at 5% per year. What amount will the company receive at the time the lease expires?
(b) Serena Williams Corporation, having recently issued a $20 million, 15-year bond issue, is committed to make annual sinking fund deposits of $600,000. The deposits are made on the last day of each year and yield a return of 10%. Will the fund at the end of 15 years be sufficient to retire the bonds? If not, what will the deficiency be?
(c) Under the terms of his salary agreement, president Rex Walters has an option of receiving either an immediate bonus of $55,000, or a deferred bonus of $70,000 payable in 10 years. Ignoring tax considerations and assuming a relevant interest rate of 4%, which form of settlement should Walters accept?
Consider the following independent situations. (a) Mike Finley wishes to become a millionaire. His money market fund has a balance of $92,296 and has a guaranteed interest rate of 10%. How many years must Mike leave that balance in the fund in order to get his desired $1,000,000? (b) Assume that Sally Williams desires to accumulate $1 million in 15 years using her money market fund balance of $182,696. At what interest rate must Sally’s investment compound annually?
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