Roundtree Manufacturing Co. is preparing its year-end financial statements and is considering the accounting for the following items. 1. The vice president of sales had indicated that one product line has lost its customer appeal and will be phased out over the next 3 years. Therefore, a decision has been made to lower the estimated lives on related production equipment from the remaining 5 years to 3 years. 2. The Hightone Building was converted from a sales office to offices for the Accounting Department at the beginning of this year. Therefore, the expense related to this building will now appear as an administrative expense rather than a selling expense on the current year’s income statement. 3. Estimating the lives of new products in the Leisure Products Division has become very difficult because of the highly competitive conditions in this market. Therefore, the practice of deferring and amortizing preproduction costs has been abandoned in favor of expensing such costs as they are incurred. Identify and explain whether each of the above items is a change in principle, a change in estimate, or an error.
The first part is a change in estimate, the second part is an error, and the third part is the change in estimates
It is a change in estimate. Change in the estimate is usually an adjustment to the carrying value or amount of the assets or liability of the company.
It is an error. The expenses incurred on the building should go under their respective heads.
It is a change in estimate. In this case, there is an adjustment to the value of the assets or the liabilities of the company as the amortization is involved.
Presented below are the comparative income and retained earnings statements for Denise Habbe Inc. for the years 2017 and 2018.
2018 2017 Sales $340,000 $270,000 Cost of sales 200,000 142,000 Gross profit 140,000 128,000 Expenses 88,000 50,000 Net income $ 52,000 $ 78,000 Retained earnings (Jan. 1) $125,000 $ 72,000 Net income 52,000 78,000 Dividends (30,000) (25,000) Retained earnings (Dec. 31) $147,000 $125,000
The following additional information is provided: 1. In 2018, Denise Habbe Inc. decided to switch its depreciation method from sum-of-the-years’ digits to the straight-line method. The assets were purchased at the beginning of 2017 for $100,000 with an estimated useful life of 4 years and no salvage value. (The 2018 income statement contains depreciation expense of $30,000 on the assets purchased at the beginning of 2017.) 2. In 2018, the company discovered that the ending inventory for 2017 was overstated by $24,000; ending inventory for 2018 is correctly stated.
Instructions Prepare the revised retained earnings statement for 2017 and 2018, assuming comparative statements. (Ignore income taxes.)
In 2017, Bailey Corporation discovered that equipment purchased on January 1, 2015, for $50,000 was expensed at that time. The equipment should have been depreciated over 5 years, with no salvage value. The effective tax rate is 30%. Prepare Bailey’s 2017 journal entry to correct the error. Bailey uses straight-line depreciation
An entry to record Purchases and related Accounts Payable of $13,000 for merchandise purchased on December 23, 2018, was recorded in January 2019. This merchandise was not included in inventory at December 31, 2018. What effect does this error have on reported net income for 2018? What entry should be made to correct for this error, assuming that the books are not closed for 2018?
(Analysis of Various Accounting Changes and Errors) Mathys Inc. has recently hired a new independent auditor, Karen Ogleby, who says she wants “to get everything straightened out.” Consequently, she has proposed the following accounting changes in connection with Mathys Inc.’s 2017 financial statements.
1. At December 31, 2016, the client had a receivable of $820,000 from Hendricks Inc. on its balance sheet. Hendricks Inc. has gone bankrupt, and no recovery is expected. The client proposes to write off the receivable as a prior period item.
2. The client proposes the following changes in depreciation policies.
(a) For office furniture and fixtures, it proposes to change from a 10-year useful life to an 8-year life. If this change had been made in prior years, retained earnings at December 31, 2016, would have been $250,000 less. The effect of the change on 2017 income alone is a reduction of $60,000.
(b) For its new equipment in the leasing division, the client proposes to adopt the sum-of-the-years’-digits depreciation method. The client had never used SYD before. The first year the client operated a leasing division was 2017. If straight-line depreciation were used, 2017 income would be $110,000 greater.
3. In preparing its 2016 statements, one of the client’s bookkeepers overstated ending inventory by $235,000 because of a mathematical error. The client proposes to treat this item as a prior period adjustment.
4. In the past, the client has spread preproduction costs in its furniture division over 5 years. Because its latest furniture is of the “fad” type, it appears that the largest volume of sales will occur during the first 2 years after introduction. Consequently, the client proposes to amortize preproduction costs on a per-unit basis, which will result in expensing most of such costs during the first 2 years after the furniture’s introduction. If the new accounting method had been used prior to 2017, retained earnings at December 31, 2016, would have been $375,000 less.
5. For the nursery division, the client proposes to switch from FIFO to LIFO inventories because it believes that LIFO will provide a better matching of current costs with revenues. The effect of making this change on 2017 earnings will be an increase of $320,000. The client says that the effect of the change on December 31, 2016, retained earnings cannot be determined.
6. To achieve an appropriate recognition of revenues and expenses in its building construction division, the client proposes to switch from the completed-contract method of accounting to the percentage-of-completion method. Had the percentage-of-completion method been employed in all prior years, retained earnings at December 31, 2016, would have been $1,075,000 greater.
(a) For each of the changes described above, decide whether:
(1) The change involves an accounting principle, accounting estimate, or correction of an error.
(2) Restatement of opening retained earnings is required.
(b) What would be the proper adjustment to the December 31, 2016, retained earnings?
In January 2017, installation costs of $6,000 on new machinery were charged to Maintenance and Repairs Expense. Other costs of this machinery of $30,000 were correctly recorded and have been depreciated using the straight-line method with an estimated life of 10 years and no salvage value. At December 31, 2018, it is decided that the machinery has a remaining useful life of 20 years, starting with January 1, 2018. What entry(ies) should be made in 2018 to correctly record transactions related to machinery, assuming the machinery has no salvage value? The books have not been closed for 2018 and depreciation expense has not yet been recorded for 2018.
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