The before-tax income for Lonnie Holdiman Co. for 2017 was $101,000 and $77,400 for 2018. However, the accountant noted that the following errors had been made:
1. Sales for 2017 included amounts of $38,200 which had been received in cash during 2017, but for which the related products were delivered in 2018. Title did not pass to the purchaser until 2018.
2. The inventory on December 31, 2017, was understated by $8,640.
3. The bookkeeper in recording interest expense for both 2017 and 2018 on bonds payable made the following entry on an annual basis. Interest Expense 15,000 Cash 15,000
The bonds have a face value of $250,000 and pay a stated interest rate of 6%. They were issued at a discount of $15,000 on January 1, 2017, to yield an effective-interest rate of 7%. (Assume that the effective-yield method should be used.)
4. Ordinary repairs to equipment had been erroneously charged to the Equipment account during 2017 and 2018. Repairs in the amount of $8,500 in 2017 and $9,400 in 2018 were so charged. The company applies a rate of 10% to the balance in the Equipment account at the end of the year in its determination of depreciation charges.
Prepare a schedule showing the determination of corrected income before taxes for 2017 and 2018
Depreciation is the allocation of the cost to its useful life, and corrected income before tax for 2017 is $62,340 and for 2018 is $96,949
Depreciation is defined as the accounting process which allocates the cost of an asset to its estimated useful life.
Incorrect Income before tax
Unearned Revenue, earned in 2018
Short Interest Booked
Short interest Booked
Correct Income before tax
Indicate how the following items are recorded in the accounting records in the current year of Coronet Co. (a) Impairment of goodwill. (b) A change in depreciating plant assets from accelerated to the straight-line method. (c) Large write-off of inventories because of obsolescence. (d) Change from the cash basis to accrual basis of accounting. (e) Change from LIFO to FIFO method for inventory valuation purposes. (f) Change in the estimate of service lives for plant assets
In January 2017, installation costs of $6,000 on new machinery were charged to Maintenance and Repairs Expense. Other costs of this machinery of $30,000 were correctly recorded and have been depreciated using the straight-line method with an estimated life of 10 years and no salvage value. At December 31, 2018, it is decided that the machinery has a remaining useful life of 20 years, starting with January 1, 2018. What entry(ies) should be made in 2018 to correctly record transactions related to machinery, assuming the machinery has no salvage value? The books have not been closed for 2018 and depreciation expense has not yet been recorded for 2018.
The following are three independent, unrelated sets of facts relating to accounting changes.
Situation 1: Sanford Company is in the process of having its first audit. The company has used the cash basis of accounting for revenue recognition. Sanford president, B. J. Jimenez, is willing to change to the accrual method of revenue recognition.
Situation 2: Hopkins Co. decides in January 2018 to change from FIFO to weighted-average pricing for its inventories.
Situation 3: Marshall Co. determined that the depreciable lives of its fixed assets are too long at present to fairly match the cost of the fixed assets with the revenue produced. The company decided at the beginning of the current year to reduce the depreciable lives of all of its existing fixed assets by 5 years.
For each of the situations described, provide the information indicated below.
(a) Type of accounting change.
(b) Manner of reporting the change under current generally accepted accounting principles, including a discussion where applicable of how amounts are computed.
(c) Effect of the change on the balance sheet and income statement
Taveras Co. decides at the beginning of 2017 to adopt the FIFO method of inventory valuation. Taveras had used the LIFO method for financial reporting since its inception on January 1, 2015, and had maintained records adequate to apply the FIFO method retrospectively. Taveras concluded that FIFO is the preferable inventory method because it reflects the current cost of inventory on the balance sheet. The following table presents the effects of the change in accounting principles on inventory and cost of goods sold. Inventory Determined by Cost of Goods Sold Determined by Date LIFO Method FIFO Method LIFO Method FIFO Method January 1, 2015 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0 December 31, 2015 100 80 800 820 December 31, 2016 200 240 1,000 940 December 31, 2017 320 390 1,130 1,100 Other information: 1. For each year presented, sales are $3,000 and operating expenses are $1,000. 2. Taveras provides two years of financial statements. Earnings per share information is not required. Instructions (a) Prepare income statements under LIFO and FIFO for 2015, 2016, and 2017. (b) Prepare income statements reflecting the retrospective application of the accounting change from the LIFO method to the FIFO method for 2017 and 2016. (c) Prepare the note to the financial statements describing the change in method of inventory valuation. In the note, indicate the income statement line items for 2017 and 2016 that were affected by the change in accounting principle. (d) Prepare comparative retained earnings statements for 2016 and 2017 under FIFO. Retained earnings reported under LIFO are as follows: Retained Earnings Balance December 31, 2015 $1,200 December 31, 2016 2,200 December 31, 2017 3,070
(Accounting for Accounting Changes and Errors) Listed below are various types of accounting changes and errors.
______ 1. Change in a plant asset’s salvage value.
______ 2. Change due to overstatement of inventory.
______ 3. Change from sum-of-the-years’-digits to straight-line method of depreciation.
______ 4. Change from presenting unconsolidated to consolidated financial statements.
______ 5. Change from LIFO to FIFO inventory method.
______ 6. Change in the rate used to compute warranty costs.
______ 7. Change from an unacceptable accounting principle to an acceptable accounting principle.
______ 8. Change in a patent’s amortization period.
______ 9. Change from completed-contract to percentage-of-completion method on construction contracts.
______ 10. Change from FIFO to average-cost inventory method.
Instructions For each change or error, indicate how it would be accounted for using the following code letters:
(a) Accounted for prospectively.
(b) Accounted for retrospectively.
(c) Neither of the above.
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