The following statement appeared in a financial magazine: “RRA—or Rah-Rah, as it’s sometimes dubbed— has kicked up quite a storm. Oil companies, for example, are convinced that the approach is misleading. Major accounting firms agree.” What is RRA? Why might oil companies believe that this approach is misleading?
Oil companies are concerned because the valuation issue is extremely tenuous.
The SEC recommended Reserve Recognition Accounting (RRA) as a mechanism (a fair value approach) of accounting for oil and gas resources. According to proponents of this concept, oil and gas should be priced at the time of discovery. The reserve value that remains on earth is calculated, and this amount is recorded on the balance sheet as "oil deposits" after being correctly discounted.
Oil firms are worried because the value situation is precarious. To appropriately evaluate reserves, for example, the following must be estimated:
Companies following international accounting standards can revalue fixed assets above the assets’ historical costs. Such revaluations are allowed under various countries’ standards and the standards issued by the IASB. Liberty International, a real estate company headquartered in the United Kingdom (U.K.), follows U.K. standards. In a recent year, Liberty disclosed the following information on revaluations of its tangible fixed assets. The revaluation reserve measures the amount by which tangible fixed assets are recorded above historical cost and is reported in Liberty’s stockholders’ equity.
Completed Investment Properties
Completed investment properties are professionally valued on a market value basis by external valuers at the balance sheet date. Surpluses and deficits arising during the year are reflected in the revalution reserve.
Liberty reported the following additional data. Amounts for Kimco Realty (which follows GAAP) in the same year are provided for comparison.
(pounds sterling, in thousands)
(dollars, in millions)
Average total assets
How do these companies compare on these performance measures?
(Depreciation Computations—SL, SYD, DDB) Deluxe Ezra Company purchases equipment on January 1, Year 1, at a cost of $469,000. The asset is expected to have a service life of 12 years and a salvage value of $40,000.
Tan Chin Company purchases a building for $11,300,000 on January 2, 2017. An engineer’s report shows that of the total purchase price, $11,000,000 should be allocated to the building (with a 40-year life), $150,000 to 15-year property, and $150,000 to 5-year property. No residual (salvage) value should be considered. Compute depreciation expense for 2017 using component depreciation.
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