Draw a stepwise, detailed mechanism for the following reaction.
The mechanism for the formation of the substitution and elimination products are shown below:
Weak bases and weak nucleophiles such as water promote a mixture of both and E1 reactions. Here water is used, which acts both as a weak base and weak nucleophile. As a result, they give a mixture of both and E1 reactions.
Tertiary halides undergo a and E1 reaction respectively when a weak nucleophile and a weak base are used, such as water which is so observed in this reaction.
Both and E1 reactions are two-step processes, and carbocation formation is the rate-determining step.
By considering all the steps, the mechanism for the formation of the substitution and elimination products are shown below:
For which reaction mechanisms—, E1, or E2—are each of the following statements true? A statement may be true for one or more mechanisms.
a. The mechanism involves carbocation intermediates.
b. The mechanism has two steps.
c. The reaction rate increases with better leaving groups.
d. The reaction rate increases when the solvent is changed from to .
e. The reaction rate depends on the concentration of the alkyl halide only.
f. The mechanism is concerted.
g. The reaction of with NaOH occurs by this mechanism.
h. Racemization at a stereogenic center occurs.
i. Tertiary (3°) alkyl halides react faster than 2° or 1° alkyl halides.
j. The reaction follows a second-order rate equation.
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