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PROBLEM 7.18

Expert-verified
Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 263

Short Answer

Question: What happens to the rate of an SN2 reaction under each of the following conditions?

a. [RX] is tripled, and stays the same.

b. Both [RX] and are tripled.

c. [RX] is halved, and stays the same.

d. [RX] is halved, and is doubled.

Answer

a. The rate of the reaction increases thrice when the concentration of is tripled and stays the same.

b. The rate of the reaction increases by nine times when the concentration of [RX] and is tripled.

c. The rate of the reaction decreases by half when the concentration of [RX] is halved and stays the same.

d. The rate of the reaction remains unchanged when the concentration of [RX] is halved and is doubled.

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

 SN2 reaction

The nucleophile strikes from the front side or the rear side in an SN2 reaction. The rate-determining step for this particular reaction is based on species like nucleophiles and the reactant.

Equation concerning  SN2   reaction

The equation that is employed to represent SN2 reaction can be given as.

Here, [RX] indicates the reactant concentration and indicates the nucleophilic concentration.

Rate of  reaction under various conditions

a. The SN2 rate of reaction depends on the concentration of the reactant, [RX], and the incoming nucleophile .

The rate of SN2 reaction can be given as:

Rate = k

When the concentration is tripled, the rate can be given as follows:

Rate =k

Hence, the rate of the reaction increases thrice when the concentration is tripled.

b. When the concentration of the reactant, [RX], and the incoming nucleophile istripled, the reaction rate can be given as:

Rate = k

=9

Hence, the reaction rate increases by nine times when the concentration of the reactant and nucleophile is tripled.

c. The rate of the reaction when [RX] is halved and remains the same can be given as:

=

Hence, the reaction rate becomes halved when the reactant concentration is halved and remains the same.

d. The reaction rate when [RX] is halved and is doubled can be given as follows:

Hence, the reaction rate remains unchanged when [RX] is halved and is doubled.

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