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Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 274

Short Answer

Question: Rank the following carbocations in order of increasing stability.


The given carbocations can be ranked as follows:

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Step by Step Solution


The incomplete octet in carbocations results in them becoming highly unstable. There are several methods to form carbocations, and one among them is electrophilic addition

Stability of carbocations

Carbocation stability is influenced by several effects, such as the inductive effect and hyper conjugative effect. Carbocations with several electron-donating groups are more stable than the ones that have lesser alkyl groups.

Arrangement of carbocations in the order of increasing stability

The increasing order of the stability of carbocations can be given as:

Several factors like the inductive effect and hyperconjugation influence carbocation stability. The positive charge can be stabilized by electron-donating groups like alkyl groups. Alkyl groups possessing several sigma bonds can easily contribute to electron density in comparison to a hydrogen atom. Hence, the carbocation stability will be more if there are more alkyl groups. The order of the increasing stability of species can be given as:

Increasing order of stability of carbocations

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