Question: Rank the following carbocations in order of increasing stability.
The given carbocations can be ranked as follows:
The incomplete octet in carbocations results in them becoming highly unstable. There are several methods to form carbocations, and one among them is electrophilic addition
Carbocation stability is influenced by several effects, such as the inductive effect and hyper conjugative effect. Carbocations with several electron-donating groups are more stable than the ones that have lesser alkyl groups.
The increasing order of the stability of carbocations can be given as:
Several factors like the inductive effect and hyperconjugation influence carbocation stability. The positive charge can be stabilized by electron-donating groups like alkyl groups. Alkyl groups possessing several sigma bonds can easily contribute to electron density in comparison to a hydrogen atom. Hence, the carbocation stability will be more if there are more alkyl groups. The order of the increasing stability of species can be given as:
Question: You will often return to nucleophilic substitution, in particular the SN2 reaction, in subsequent chapters and concentrate on the nucleophile rather than the alkyl halide. By using different nucleophiles, nucleophilic substitution allows the synthesis of a wide variety of organic compounds with many different functional groups. With this in mind, draw the products of each two-step sequence. (Hint: Step  in each part involves an acid-base reaction that removes the most acidic hydrogen from the starting material.)
Question: Consider the following SN2 reaction.
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