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Q.45.

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Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 91

Short Answer

Question: Explain why benzene has a lower boiling point but much higher melting point than toluene.

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Answer

The molecular weight of benzene is lower than toluene, resulting in its boiling point being less than toluene. The presence of symmetry makes the melting point of benzene higher than toluene.

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

Step 1: Boiling point

Several factors impact the boiling point, and the molecular weight is one among them. Larger molecules are considered to possess greater boiling points than smaller molecules.

Step 2: Melting point

Various factors regulate the melting point of a particular substance, and symmetry is one such essential factor. Symmetrical molecules are considered to have higher boiling points when compared to unsymmetrical molecules.

Step 3: Comparison betweenthe boiling points of benzene and toluene

The melting and boiling points of a specific compound are influenced by its intermolecular forces. If a compound has greater intermolecular forces, then its melting, and boiling points will be high.

The melting and boiling points vary based on the intermolecular forces as given below:

The intermolecular forces present in benzene and toluene are Vander Waals forces since both are non-polar compounds.

The molecular mass of a substance also influences its boiling point. The molecular mass of toluene is greater than benzene. Hence, toluene will have a higher boiling point than benzene.

Step 4: Comparison between melting points of benzene and toluene

Symmetry is one of the factors that impact the melting point of a particular substance. The presence of symmetry in the molecules makes them compact, and molecules are packed in a crystal lattice.

Benzene possesses symmetry, but toluene does not. Therefore, benzene has a higher melting point than toluene.

Hence, the presence of higher molecular weight makes toluene possess a higher boiling point than benzene. The presence of symmetry in benzene makes it possess a higher melting point than toluene.

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