Question: Explain why benzene has a lower boiling point but much higher melting point than toluene.
The molecular weight of benzene is lower than toluene, resulting in its boiling point being less than toluene. The presence of symmetry makes the melting point of benzene higher than toluene.
Several factors impact the boiling point, and the molecular weight is one among them. Larger molecules are considered to possess greater boiling points than smaller molecules.
Various factors regulate the melting point of a particular substance, and symmetry is one such essential factor. Symmetrical molecules are considered to have higher boiling points when compared to unsymmetrical molecules.
The melting and boiling points of a specific compound are influenced by its intermolecular forces. If a compound has greater intermolecular forces, then its melting, and boiling points will be high.
The melting and boiling points vary based on the intermolecular forces as given below:
The intermolecular forces present in benzene and toluene are Vander Waals forces since both are non-polar compounds.
The molecular mass of a substance also influences its boiling point. The molecular mass of toluene is greater than benzene. Hence, toluene will have a higher boiling point than benzene.
Symmetry is one of the factors that impact the melting point of a particular substance. The presence of symmetry in the molecules makes them compact, and molecules are packed in a crystal lattice.
Benzene possesses symmetry, but toluene does not. Therefore, benzene has a higher melting point than toluene.
Hence, the presence of higher molecular weight makes toluene possess a higher boiling point than benzene. The presence of symmetry in benzene makes it possess a higher melting point than toluene.
Question: Quinapril (trade name Accupril) is a drug used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure.
a. Identify the functional groups in quinapril.
b. Classify any alcohol, amide, or amine as , or .
c. At which sites can quinapril hydrogen bond to water?
d. At which sites can quinapril hydrogen bond to acetone ?
e. Label the most acidic hydrogen atom.
f. Which site is most basic?
Question: Answer the following questions by referring to the ball-and-stick model of fentanyl, a potent narcotic analgesic used in surgical procedures.
a. Identify the functional groups.
b. Label the most acidic proton.
c. Label the most basic atom.
d. What types of intermolecular forces are present between two molecules of fentanyl?
e. Draw an isomer predicted to have a higher boiling point.
f. Which sites in the molecule can hydrogen bond to water?
g. Label all electrophilic carbons.
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