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Q32.

Expert-verified
Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 47

Short Answer

Question: Rank the following atoms in order of increasing electronegativity. Label the most electronegative and most electropositive atom in each group.

Answer

a. The order of electronegativity is .

The highest electronegative atom is oxygen, and the highest electropositive atom is selenium.

b. The order of electronegativity is .

The highest electronegative atom is chlorine, and the highest electropositive atom is sodium.

c. The order of electronegativity is .

The highest electronegative atom is chlorine, and the highest electropositive atom is sodium.

d. The order of electronegativity is

The highest electronegative atom is oxygen, and the highest electropositive atom is phosphorus.

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

Step-by-Step Solution Step 1: Definition of electronegativity and electro positivity

Electronegativity measures the extent of attraction of electrons (shared pairs) towards the nucleus of the corresponding atom.

Electro positivity measures the extent of the donation of electrons towards the electron-deficient atoms.

Step 2: Variation of electronegativity and electro positivity along the period

The variation of electronegativity and electro positivity is as follows:

  • The electronegativity increases as we move from left to right in the periodic table. This is due to the addition of electrons into the same shell, which arises the attraction between the outermost electrons and the nucleus.

  • The electro positivity is the opposite tendency of electronegativity. The electro positivity decreases as we move from left to right due increase in nuclear charge.

Step 3: Variation of electronegativity and electro positivity down the group

The variation of electronegativity and electro positivity is as follows:

  • The electronegativity decreases as we move down the group in the periodic table due to the increase in the principal quantum number which increases the distance between the added electrons and the nucleus.

  • The electro positivity increases as we move down the group in the periodic table due to the increase in the principal quantum number (main energy shell) and decrease in nuclear charge.

Step 4: Ranking of atoms as per electronegativity

a. The O atom is the first member of the sixteenth group element, whereas the S atom is the second member of the same group, and the third member of the same group is Se.

The electronegativity order is as follows:

Therefore, the highest electronegative atom is O, and the highest electropositive atom is Se.

b. Cl is the second member of the seventeenth group; P is the second member of the fifteenth group, and Na is the third member of the first group.

Therefore, electronegativity order is

This shows that the most electronegative atom is Cl, and the most electropositive atom is Na.

c. F is the second member of the seventeenth group; Cl is the second member of the seventeenth group, and S is the second member of the sixteenth group. Therefore, electronegativity follows the order

This shows that the most electronegative atom is F, and the most electropositive atom is S.

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