Q40.

Expert-verifiedFound in: Page 54

Book edition
5th

Author(s)
Janice Gorzynski Smith

Pages
1256 pages

ISBN
9780078021558

**Question: Assign formal charges to each N and O atom in the given molecules. All lone pairs have been drawn in. **

a.

b.

c.

d.

**Answer**

** **

a. -1

** **

b. -1, +1, -1 (from left to right)

c. +1

d. 0, 0 (N and O, respectively)

**The determination of formal charge is completed by using the given formula:**

. The calculation of the formal charge of N is as follows:

- The total number of valence electrons of nitrogen is five.
- The lone pair of electrons is four.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

b. The calculation of the formal charge for N (extreme left) is as follows:

- The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
- The lone pair of electrons is four.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

The calculation of the formal charge for N (middle) is as follows:

- The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
- The lone pair of electrons is zero.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is eight as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is +1.

The calculation of the formal charge for N (extreme right) is as follows:

- The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
- The lone pair of electrons is four.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

c. The calculation of the formal charge for O is as follows:

- The total valence electrons of O are six.
- The lone pair of electrons is two.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is six as all the O electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of O is +1.

d. The calculation of the formal charge for N is as follows:

- The total valence electrons of N are five.
- The lone pair of electrons is two.
- The bonding pair of the electrons is six as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is zero.

The calculation of the formal charge for O is as follows:

- The total valence electrons of O are six.
- The lone pair of electrons is four.
- The bonding pair of electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of O is zero.

94% of StudySmarter users get better grades.

Sign up for free