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Q40.

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Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 54

Short Answer

Question: Assign formal charges to each N and O atom in the given molecules. All lone pairs have been drawn in.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Answer

a. -1

b. -1, +1, -1 (from left to right)

c. +1

d. 0, 0 (N and O, respectively)

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

Step-by-Step Solution Step 1:  Determination of formal charge  

The determination of formal charge is completed by using the given formula:

Step 2: Calculation of formal charge

. The calculation of the formal charge of N is as follows:

  • The total number of valence electrons of nitrogen is five.
  • The lone pair of electrons is four.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

b. The calculation of the formal charge for N (extreme left) is as follows:

  • The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
  • The lone pair of electrons is four.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

The calculation of the formal charge for N (middle) is as follows:

  • The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
  • The lone pair of electrons is zero.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is eight as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is +1.

The calculation of the formal charge for N (extreme right) is as follows:

  • The total number of valence electrons of N is five.
  • The lone pair of electrons is four.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is -1.

c. The calculation of the formal charge for O is as follows:

  • The total valence electrons of O are six.
  • The lone pair of electrons is two.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is six as all the O electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of O is +1.

d. The calculation of the formal charge for N is as follows:

  • The total valence electrons of N are five.
  • The lone pair of electrons is two.
  • The bonding pair of the electrons is six as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of N is zero.

The calculation of the formal charge for O is as follows:

  • The total valence electrons of O are six.
  • The lone pair of electrons is four.
  • The bonding pair of electrons is four as all the N electrons are used.

Therefore,

Hence, the formal charge of O is zero.

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