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Q64.

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Organic Chemistry
Found in: Page 57

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Short Answer

Question: Predict the hybridization and geometry around each highlighted atom.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Answer

a. The hybridization of the highlighted atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal.

b. The hybridization of the highlighted atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is tetrahedral.

c. The hybridization of the highlighted atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is tetrahedral

d. The hybridization of the highlighted atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is linear.

e. The hybridization of the highlighted atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is trigonal planar.

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

 Step-by-Step SolutionStep 1: Hybridization

The intermixing of the atomic orbitals of an atom with slightly different energies and shapes to produce the new orbitals with similar energies and shapes is known as hybridization.

The hybridization takes place only during the time of bond formation. The number of orbitals taking part in hybridization is always equal to the number of hybrid orbitals produced.

Step 2: Types of hybridization

The half-filled, as well as the completely filled orbitals, can participate in hybridization.

The shape of the molecules can be determined with the help of hybridization. Hybridization is of the following types:

  • The hybridization: It involves the intermixing of one s and one p orbital, which belongs to the same shell of an atom. It results in the formation of two equivalent orbitals of the same energy and shape.
  • The hybridization: This type of hybridization involves the intermixing of one s orbital and two p orbitals. It produces three hybrid orbitals with two-third of the p character and one-third of the s character.
  • The hybridization: In this type of hybridization, one s and three p orbitals are involved. Four hybrid orbitals with 25% s character and 75% p character are produced.

Step 3: Geometry of the molecules:

The type of hybridization can be used to determine the geometry of the molecules.

  • The hybrid orbitals always arrange themselves linearly in an angle of . The molecules with hybridization always have a linear geometry.
  • The three hybrid molecules arrange themselves at an angle of in the same plane. This type of geometry is trigonal planar.
  • The four hybrid orbitals always result in the formation of tetrahedral geometry with an angle of . The four hybrid orbitals always lie toward the four corners of a regular tetrahedron.
  • The hybridization can also result in the formation of trigonal pyramidal geometry. This geometry is obtained due to lone pair of electrons in one of the four hybrid orbitals.

Step 4: Determination of hybridization and geometry of the given molecules

a. In the given structure, the highlighted carbon has one hydrogen and two other alkyl groups attached to it. It also has a lone pair of electrons. Therefore, the total number of groups attached to the highlighted carbon atom is equal to 4.

The hybridization of the highlighted carbon atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal.

b. The highlighted oxygen atom in the given molecule has three alkyl groups attached to it. It has one lone pair of electrons.

The hybridization of the highlighted oxygen atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is tetrahedral.

c. The highlighted carbon atom has four groups attached to it. It has a phenyl ring, one chloride group, and a hydrogen atom.

The hybridization of the highlighted carbon atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is tetrahedral.

d. The number of groups attached to the highlighted carbon atom is two. It is bonded to two other carbon atoms, as shown in the above skeletal structure.

The hybridization of the highlighted carbon atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is linear.

e. The number of groups attached to the highlighted nitrogen atoms is three. It is bonded to two other atoms and has one lone pair of electrons.

Therefore, the hybridization of the highlighted nitrogen atom is .

The geometry of the molecule is trigonal planar.

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