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Fundamentals Of Differential Equations And Boundary Value Problems
Found in: Page 271
Fundamentals Of Differential Equations And Boundary Value Problems

Fundamentals Of Differential Equations And Boundary Value Problems

Book edition 9th
Author(s) R. Kent Nagle, Edward B. Saff, Arthur David Snider
Pages 616 pages
ISBN 9780321977069

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Short Answer

In Problems 15–18, find all critical points for the given system. Then use a software package to sketch the direction field in the phase plane and from this description the stability of the critical points (i.e., compare with Figure 5.12).


This is a stable node point is (0,0).

See the step by step solution

Step by Step Solution

Step 1: Find critical points

Here the system is;


For critical points equate the system equal to zero.


Solve for x and y by eliminating the method.

The values of x=0 and y=0.

So, this is the stable node point (0,0).

Step 2: Sketch

This is the required result.

Most popular questions for Math Textbooks

Sticky Friction. An alternative for the damping friction model F = -by′ discussed in Section 4.1 is the “sticky friction” model. For a mass sliding on a surface as depicted in Figure 5.18, the contact friction is more complicated than simply -by′. We observe, for example, that even if the mass is displaced slightly off the equilibrium location y = 0, it may nonetheless remain stationary due to the fact that the spring force -ky is insufficient to break the static friction’s grip. If the maximum force that the friction can exert is denoted by m, then a feasible model is given by

\({{\bf{F}}_{{\bf{friction}}}}{\bf{ = }}\left\{ \begin{array}{l}{\bf{ky,if}}\left| {{\bf{ky}}} \right|{\bf{ < }}\mu {\bf{andy' = 0}}\\\mu {\bf{sign(y),if}}\left| {{\bf{ky}}} \right| \ge {\bf{0andy' = 0}}\\ - \mu {\bf{sign(y'),ify'}} \ne 0.\end{array} \right.\)

(The function sign (s) is +1 when s 7 0, -1 when s 6 0, and 0 when s = 0.) The motion is governed by the equation (16) \({\bf{m}}\frac{{{{\bf{d}}^{\bf{2}}}{\bf{y}}}}{{{\bf{d}}{{\bf{t}}^{\bf{2}}}}}{\bf{ = - ky + }}{{\bf{F}}_{{\bf{friction}}}}\)Thus, if the mass is at rest, friction balances the spring force if \(\left| {\bf{y}} \right|{\bf{ < }}\frac{\mu }{{\bf{k}}}\)but simply opposes it with intensity\(\mu \)if\(\left| {\bf{y}} \right| \ge \frac{\mu }{{\bf{k}}}\). If the mass is moving, friction opposes the velocity with the same intensity\(\mu \).

  1. Taking m =\(\mu \) = k = 1, convert (16) into the firstorder system y′ = v (17)\({\bf{v' = }}\left\{ \begin{array}{l}{\bf{0,if}}\left| {\bf{y}} \right|{\bf{ < 1andv = 0}}{\bf{.}}\\{\bf{ - y + sign(y),if}}\left| {\bf{y}} \right| \ge {\bf{1andv = 0}}\\{\bf{ - y - sign(v),ifv}} \ne 0\end{array} \right.\) ,
  2. Form the phase plane equation for (17) when v ≠ 0 and solve it to derive the solutions\({{\bf{v}}^{\bf{2}}}{\bf{ + (y \pm 1}}{{\bf{)}}^{\bf{2}}}{\bf{ = c}}\).where the plus sign prevails for v>0 and the minus sign for v<0.
  3. Identify the trajectories in the phase plane as two families of concentric semicircles. What is the centre of the semicircles in the upper half-plane? The lower half-plane?
  4. What are the critical points for (17)?
  5. Sketch the trajectory in the phase plane of the mass released from rest at y = 7.5. At what value for y does the mass come to rest?

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