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For an molecule, the constant is approximately . Estimate the rotational partition function for an molecule at room temperatur
The analysis of this section applies also to linear polyatomic molecule for which no rotation about the axis of symmetry is possible .An example is CO2, with e=0.000049 eV. Estimate the rotational partition function for a CO2 molecule at room temperature.(Note that the arrangement of the atom is OCO, and the two oxygen atoms are identical.)
For a molecule, the constant is approximately .(This number is measured using microwave spectroscopy, that is, by measuring the microwave frequencies needed to excite the molecules into higher rotational states.) Calculate the rotational partition function for a molecule at room temperature , first using the exact formula 6.30 and then using the approximate formula 6.31
Consider a system of two Einstein solids, where the first "solid" contains just a single oscillator, while the second solid contains 100 oscillators. The total number of energy units in the combined system is fixed at 500. Use a computer to make a table of the multiplicity of the combined system, for each possible value of the energy of the first solid from 0 units to 20. Make a graph of the total multiplicity vs. the energy of the first solid, and discuss, in some detail, whether the shape of the graph is what you would expect. Also plot the logarithm of the total multiplicity, and discuss the shape of this graph.
A water molecule can vibrate in various ways, but the easiest type of vibration to excite is the "flexing' mode in which the hydrogen atoms move toward and away from each other but the HO bonds do not stretch. The oscillations of this mode are approximately harmonic, with a frequency of 4.8 x 1013Hz. As for any quantum harmonic oscillator, the energy levels are , and so on. None of these levels are degenerate.
A lithium nucleus has four independent spin orientations, conventionally labeled by the quantum number m = -3/2, -1/2, 1/2, 3/2. In a magnetic field B, the energies of these four states are E = mB, where the constant is 1.03 x 10-7 eV/T. In the Purcell-Pound experiment described in Section 3.3, the maximum magnetic field strength was 0.63 T and the temperature was 300 K. Calculate the probability of a lithium nucleus being in each of its four spin states under these conditions. Then show that, if the field is suddenly reversed, the probabilities of the four states obey the Boltzmann distribution for T =-300 K.
Cold interstellar molecular clouds often contain the molecule cyanogen (CN), whose first rotational excited states have an energy of 4.7x 10-4 eV (above the ground state). There are actually three such excited states, all with the same energy. In 1941, studies of the absorption spectrum of starlight that passes | through these molecular clouds showed that for every ten CN molecules that are in the ground state, approximately three others are in the three first excited states (that is, an average of one in each of these states). To account for this data, astronomers suggested that the molecules might be in thermal equilibrium with some "reservoir" with a well-defined temperature. What is that temperature?
At very high temperatures (as in the very early universe), the proton and the neutron can be thought of as two different states of the same particle, called the "nucleon." (The reactions that convert a proton to a neutron or vice versa require the absorption of an electron or a positron or a neutrino, but all of these particles tend to be very abundant at sufficiently high temperatures.) Since the neutron's mass is higher than the proton's by 2.3 x 10-30 kg, its energy is higher by this amount times c2. Suppose, then, that at some very early time, the nucleons were in thermal equilibrium with the rest of the universe at 1011 K. What fraction of the nucleons at that time were protons, and what fraction were neutrons?
Use Boltzmann factors to derive the exponential formula for the density of an isothermal atmosphere, already derived in Problems 1.16 and 3.37. (Hint: Let the system be a single air molecule, let s1 be a state with the molecule at sea level, and let s2 be a state with the molecule at height z.)
Suppose you have 10 atoms of weberium: 4 with energy 0 eV, 3 with energy 1 eV, 2 with energy 4 eV, and 1 with energy 6 eV.
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