In the previous section I derived the formula . Explain why this formula makes intuitive sense, by discussing graphs of F vs. V with different slopes.
The equilibrium condition occurs when the slope of a curve of F verses V is equal.
From thermodynamics Helmholtz free energy is given by
Here, P is the pressure, F is Helmholtz free energy, V s the volume, T is the temperature and N is the number of molecules.
Write the expression for Helmholtz free energy: F=U-T SWhere, U is the internal energy and S is the entropy of the system.The equilibrium state occurs when the energy of the system is the minimum and when the overall entropy is maximum.For a given number of molecules and given temperature, the increase in the volume yields an increase in the entropy and decrease in the Helmholtz free energy.Draw a graph to show the variation of F with V.Conclusion:So, the equilibrium condition occurs when the slope of a curve of F verses V is equal
Derive the van't Hoff equation,
which gives the dependence of the equilibrium constant on temperature." Here is the enthalpy change of the reaction, for pure substances in their standard states (1 bar pressure for gases). Notice that if is positive (loosely speaking, if the reaction requires the absorption of heat), then higher temperature makes the reaction tend more to the right, as you might expect. Often you can neglect the temperature dependence of; solve the equation in this case to obtain
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