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Polymers, like rubber, are made of very long molecules, usually tangled up in a configuration that has lots of entropy. As a very crude model of a rubber band, consider a chain of N links, each of length (see Figure 3.17). Imagine that each link has only two possible states, pointing either left or right. The total length L of the rubber band is the net displacement from the beginning of the first link to the end of the
Use Table 3.1 to compute the temperatures of solid A and solid B when . Then compute both temperatures when . Express your answers in terms of , and then in kelvins assuming that .
An ice cube (mass )is left sitting on the kitchen table, where it gradually melts. The temperature in the kitchen is .
In order to take a nice warm bath, you mix 50 liters of hot water at with 25 liters of cold water at . How much new entropy have you created by mixing the water?
Estimate the change in the entropy of the universe due to heat escaping from your home on a cold winter day.
When the sun is high in the sky, it delivers approximately 1000 watts of power to each square meter of earth's surface. The temperature of the surface of the sun is about , while that of the earth is about .
Experimental measurements of the heat capacity of aluminum at low temperatures (below about ) can be fit to the formula
In Problem 1.55 you used the virial theorem to estimate the heat capacity of a star. Starting with that result, calculate the entropy of a star, first in terms of its average temperature and then in terms of its total energy. Sketch the entropy as a function of energy, and comment on the shape of the graph.
A bit of computer memory is some physical object that can be in two different states, often interpreted as 0 and 1. A byte is eight bits, a kilobyte is bytes, a megabyte is 1024 kilobytes, and a gigabyte is 1024 megabytes.
Verify every entry in the third line of Table 3.2 (starting with .
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