Why is it preferable for airplanes to take off into the wind rather than with the wind?
More lift can be achieved by taking off the airplane into the wind.
The rate at which an object changes its position is measured in velocity, which is a vector quantity.
The wings of the airplane are designed in such a way that it creates an area of low pressure above the wing and relatively high pressure below the wing. the airplane can get a lift because of this pressure difference.
Figure 1: Design of a wing of the airplane
When the airplane is taking off into the wind, the relative velocity of the wind is higher. This helps inflow air with a high velocity above the wing and thus creating a low-pressure area above the wing as per Bernoulli's principle. A better lift can be achieved with lesser ground speed by taking off into the air. Furthermore, the airplane can be controlled easily due to this lift.
When the airplane is taking off in the wind, the relative velocity of the wind is lesser. To get a better lift, the airplane needs to increase ground speed so that air flows with greater speed above the wing and creates a low-pressure area. Taking off into the wind creates less lift hence it is not preferred. Furthermore, controlling an airplane with less lift is not safe.
Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature—that is, how might increase temperature reduce the effects of cohesive forces in a liquid? Also explain why the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature—that is, how does increased gas temperature create more collisions between atoms and molecules?
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