Water pressure inside a hose nozzle can be less than atmospheric pressure due to the Bernoulli effect. Explain in terms of energy how the water can emerge from the nozzle against the opposing atmospheric pressure.
Water that is leaving the nozzle with high kinetic energy creates a condition that hose pressure is always greater than the outer pressure.
Bernoulli's principle states that,for an incompressible fluid,the sum of kinetic energy, pressure energy and gravitation potential energy is constant. Interconversion of these energies can take place, however, total energy at any point of fluid remains constant.
When the pressure inside the hose pipe is less, the kinetic energy of the water is high. When water leaves the nozzle its speed is greater than the speed in the hose. According to Bernoulli's principle, this higher kinetic energy of water outside the hose nozzle, creates an even lower pressure region. This is why water can emerge from the nozzle against the opposing atmospheric pressure.
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