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Chapter 31: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

College Physics (Urone)
Pages: 1117 - 1152

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90 Questions for Chapter 31: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

  1. Is it possible for light emitted by a scintillator to be too low in frequency to be used in a photomultiplier tube? Explain.

    Found on Page 1147
  2. The unified atomic mass unit is defined to be\(1\,{\rm{u}} = 1.6605 \times {10^{ - 27}}\,{\rm{kg}}\). Verify that this amount of mass converted to energy yields \(931.5\,{\rm{MeV}}\). Note that you must use four-digit or better values for \({\rm{c}}\) and \({\rm{|}}{{\rm{q}}_{\rm{e}}}{\rm{|}}\).

    Found on Page 1149
  3. The weak and strong nuclear forces are basic to the structure of matter. Why we do not experience them directly?

    Found on Page 1147
  4. What is the ratio of the velocity of a\({\rm{\beta }}\)particle to that of an\({\rm{\alpha }}\)particle, if they have the same nonrelativistic kinetic energy?

    Found on Page 1149
  5. If a \(1.50\,{\rm{cm}}\)-thick piece of lead can absorb \({\rm{90}}{\rm{.0 \% }}\) of the \({\rm{\gamma }}\) rays from a radioactive source, how many centimeters of lead are needed to absorb all but \({\rm{0}}{\rm{.100 \% }}\) of the \({\rm{\gamma }}\) rays?

    Found on Page 1149
  6. The detail observable using a probe is limited by its wavelength. Calculate the energy of a\({\rm{\gamma }}\)-ray photon that has a wavelength of\(1 \times {10^{ - 16}}\,{\rm{m}}\), small enough to detect details about one-tenth the size of a nucleon. Note that a photon having this energy is difficult to produce and interacts poorly with the nucleus, limiting the practicability of this probe.

    Found on Page 1149
  7. Star Trek fans have often heard the term “antimatter drive.” Describe how you could use a magnetic field to trap antimatter, such as produced by nuclear decay, and later combine it with matter to produce energy. Be specific about the type of antimatter, the need for vacuum storage, and the fraction of matter converted into energy.

    Found on Page 1147
  8. What is the ratio of the velocity of a \(5.00\,{\rm{MeV }}\beta \)ray to that of an\({\rm{\alpha }}\) particle with the same kinetic energy? This should confirm that \({\rm{\beta }}\) s travel much faster than \({\rm{\alpha }}\) s even when relativity is taken into consideration. (See also Exercise \({\rm{31}}{\rm{.11}}\).)

    Found on Page 1149
  9. Neutrinos are experimentally determined to have an extremely small mass. Huge numbers of neutrinos are created in a supernova at the same time as massive amounts of light are first produced. When the 1987A supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud, visible primarily in the Southern Hemisphere and some 100,000 light-years away from Earth, neutrinos from the explosion were observed at about the same time as the light from the blast. How could the relative arrival times of neutrinos and light be used to place limits on the mass of neutrinos?

    Found on Page 1147
  10. Found on Page 1149

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