Question: Under what circumstances would you expect a gas to behave significantly differently than predicted by the ideal gas law?
The gases deviate from ideal gas behavior at high pressure and low temperature. The ideal gas law tries to describe the behavior of real gases in ideal conditions. But at high pressure or low temperature, it doesn’t give us a clear description of gas behaviors.
Under high pressure and low temperature, a real gas does not completely obey the ideal gas behavior.
An ideal gas is said to follow the gas laws in all conditions of pressure and temperature. To do so the gas need to follow the kinetic molecular theory. Whereas, a real gas is a gas that does not follow the kinetic molecular theory’s assumption. Fortunately, at the conditions of temperature and pressure that are normally encountered in a laboratory, real gases tend to behave very much like ideal gases.
When a gas is put under very high pressure, its molecules are very close and the empty spaces between the particles are decreased. This means that the volume of the particles themselves is negligible and is less valid.
When a gas is cooled, Kinetic energy is decreased and the particles are moving at a slower speed and the attractive force between them is more prominent. So we can say that a real gas deviates from an ideal gas at high pressure and low temperature.
A high-pressure gas cylinder contains 50.0 L of toxic gas at a pressure of 1.40 x 107 N/m2 and a temperature of . Its valve leaks after the cylinder is dropped. The cylinder is cooled to dry ice temperature () to reduce the leak rate and pressure so that it can be safely repaired. (a) What is the final pressure in the tank, assuming a negligible amount of gas leaks while being cooled and that there is no phase change? (b) What is the final pressure if one-tenth of the gas escapes? (c) To what temperature must the tank be cooled to reduce the pressure to 1.0 atm (assuming the gas does not change phase and that there is no leakage during cooling)? (d) Does cooling the tank appear to be a practical solution?
(a) The density of water at 0ºC is very nearly 1000 kg/m3 (it is actually 999.84 kg/m3 ), whereas the density of ice at 0ºC is 917 kg/m3. Calculate the pressure necessary to keep ice from expanding when it freezes, neglecting the effect such a large pressure would have on the freezing temperature. (This problem gives you only an indication of how large the forces associated with freezing water might be.) (b) What are the implications of this result for biological cells that are frozen?
94% of StudySmarter users get better grades.Sign up for free