Does a gas become more orderly when it liquefies? Does its entropy change? If so, does the entropy increase or decrease? Explain your answer.
As a gas liquefies into a liquid, the entropy decreases.
In its solid form, a system will be highly ordered. Its orderliness is reduced when it transforms from a solid to a liquid or gaseous form. Because orderliness depends on how the particles are arranged in a system. As the gas changes to liquid in this situation, the particles get closer together and the arrangement becomes more orderly. As a result, the system becomes more orderly.
In a gas, the space between the particles is greater, allowing them to move randomly and increasing the entropy. Because the measure of randomness is entropy. When a gas liquefies, the particles get closer together, and the gas's ability to move diminishes. It became less disordered and less random. As a result, entropy decreases.
So, the entropy of the system will be reduced when it changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.
(a) What is the best coefficient of performance for a heat pump that has a hot reservoir temperature of 50.0ºC and a cold reservoir temperature of −20.0ºC ? (b) How much heat transfer occurs into the warm environment if 3.60×107 J of work ( 10.0kW ⋅ h ) is put into it? (c) If the cost of this work input is 10.0 cents/kW ⋅ h , how does its cost compare with the direct heat transfer achieved by burning natural gas at a cost of 85.0 cents per therm. (A therm is a common unit of energy for natural gas and equals 1.055×108 J .)
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