Consider the elements krypton and Rubidium.
(a) Which is more suitable for use in a Stern–Gerlach experiment of the kind described in connection with Fig. 40-8?
(b) Which, if either, would not work at all?
a) The element Rubidium is more suitable for the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
b) If both would not work at all, then an element with neutral electrical properties would be suitable for the experiment.
The given elements are krypton and Rubidium.
The Stern-Gerlach experiment is based on the demonstration of the spatial orientations of the angular momentum having a dipole moment and having negligible deviations being quantized to get the accurate relation of the changing magnetic field, the dipole, force, and energy relations.
Now, in the Stern-Gerlach experiment, the silver atoms were used due to their property of having less deviation from their incident path, massive mass and having a magnetic dipole moment. Since, the electronic configuration of Silver () is similar to that of Rubidium (), having one outermost electron, this is more suitable than the element krypton, which is a noble gas.
Also, taking silver atoms was decided because of its neutral electrical properties, which are also satisfied by the element Rubidium.
Hence, the more suitable one is Rubidium.
Again, If Rubidium is also not suitable because its size is smaller than that of silver atoms, causing errors due to major deviations.
Then, the particle with a similar structure to silver atoms, having intrinsic angular momentum as an overall being neutrally electrical particle, would be suitable for conducting this experiment.
Hence, the neutral particles that are stable or long-lived particles are more suitable.
Assume that in the Stern–Gerlach experiment as described for neutral silver atoms, the magnetic field has a magnitude of 0.50 T. (a) What is the energy difference between the magnetic moment orientations of the silver atoms in the two sub-beams? (b) What is the frequency of the radiation that would induce a transition between these two states? (c) What is the wavelength of this radiation, and (d) to what part of the electromagnetic spectrum does it belong?
A hydrogen atom in its ground state actually has two possible, closely spaced energy levels because the electron is in the magnetic field of the proton (the nucleus). Accordingly, energy is associated with the orientation of the electron’s magnetic moment relative to , and the electron is said to be either spin up (higher energy) or spin down (lower energy) in that field. If the electron is excited to the higher energy level, it can de-excite by spin-flipping and emitting a photon. The wavelength associated with that photon is 21 cm. (Such a process occurs extensively in the Milky Way galaxy, and reception of the 21 cm radiation by radio telescopes reveals where hydrogen gas lies between stars.) What is the effective magnitude of as experienced by the electron in the ground-state hydrogen atom?
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