The x-ray spectrum of Fig. 40-13 is for 35.0 keV electrons striking a molybdenum ( Z = 42 ) target. If you substitute a silver ( Z = 47 ) target for the molybdenum target, will
(b) the wavelength for the role="math" localid="1661495146456" line, and
(c) the wavelength for the line increase, decrease, or remain unchanged?
Using the basic Planck's relation, we can get the minimum wavelength produced due to the strike and the resulting production of the X-rays. Now, for the given emitted energy for each level for the silver atom, we can get the energy difference for each transition. Thus, using this energy, we can get the minimum wavelength in each case.
The energy of the photon, due to Planck's relation:
According to the Moseley's law, we can get the relation of frequency or wavelength to atomic number as:
Using the given data in equation (i), we can get the value of the minimum wavelength produced by the element, molybdenum after the strike of the rays as follows:
Hence, the value of the minimum wavelength is .
Using the Moseley relation, the wavelength of a line can be given as:
From the above relation, the wavelength of molybdenum can be given as:
From the above relation, the wavelength of silver can be given as:
Hence, the wavelength of line referring to the atomic number of the silver in comparison to the old target, molybdenum decreases.
Similarly, considering the calculations from part (b), we can get that the wavelength of line referring to the atomic number of the silver in comparison to the old target, molybdenum decreases.
Ruby lasers are at a wavelength of 694 nm. A certain ruby crystal has Cr ions (which are the atoms that lase). The lasing transition is between the first excited state and the ground state, and the output is a light pulse lasting . As the pulse begins, 60.0% of the Cr ions are in the first excited state and the rest are in the ground state. What is the average power emitted during the pulse? (Hint: Don’t just ignore the ground-state ions.)
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