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Chapter 43: Energy from the Nucleus

Fundamentals Of Physics
Pages: 1309 - 1333

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70 Questions for Chapter 43: Energy from the Nucleus

  1. Calculate the energy released in the fission reaction

    Found on Page 1331
  2. About 2% of the energy generated in the Sun’s core by the p-p reaction is carried out of the Sun by neutrinos. Is the energy associated with this neutrino flux equal to, greater than, or less than the energy radiated from the Sun’s surface as electromagnetic radiation?

    Found on Page 1330
  3. Calculate the disintegration energy Q for the fission of C52rinto two equal fragments. The masses you will need are

    Found on Page 1331
  4. A nuclear reactor is operating at a certain power level, with its multiplication factor k adjusted to unity. If the control rods are used to reduce the power output of the reactor to 25% of its former value, is the multiplication factor now a little less than unity, substantially less than unity, or still equal to unity?

    Found on Page 1330
  5. Question: Consider the fission of U238by fast neutrons. In one fission event, no neutrons are emitted and the final stable end products, after the beta decay of the primary fission fragments, are C140eandRu99. (a) What is the total of the beta-decay events in the two beta-decay chains? (b) Calculate for this fission process. The relevant atomic and particle masses are

    Found on Page 1331
  6. Pick the most likely member of each pair to be one of the initial fragments formed by a fission event:

    Found on Page 1331
  7. Question: Assume that immediately after the fission of U236according to Eq. 43-1, the resulting Xe140andSr94nuclei are just touching at their surfaces. (a) Assuming the nuclei to be spherical, calculate the electric potential energy associated with the repulsion between the two fragments. (Hint: Use Eq. 42-3 to calculate the radii of the fragments.) (b) Compare this energy with the energy released in a typical fission event.

    Found on Page 1331
  8. Question: A U236nucleus undergoes fission and breaks into two middle-mass fragments, X140eandSr96. (a) By what percentage does the surface area of the fission products differ from that of the original U236nucleus? (b) By what percentage does the volume change? (c) By what percentage does the electric potential energy change? The electric potential energy of a uniformly charged sphere of radius r and charge Q is given by

    Found on Page 1331
  9. Question: A 66 kiloton atomic bomb is fueled with pure U235(Fig. 43-14), 4.0%of which actually undergoes fission. (a) What is the mass of the uranium in the bomb? (It is not 66 kilotons—that is the amount of released energy specified in terms of the mass of TNT required to produce the same amount of energy.) (b) How many primary fission fragments are produced? (c) How many fission neutrons generated are released to the environment? (On average, each fission produces 2.5 neutrons.)

    Found on Page 1331
  10. In an atomic bomb, energy release is due to the uncontrolled fission of plutonium Pu239(or U235). The bomb’s rating is the magnitude of the released energy, specified in terms of the mass of TNT required to produce the same energy release. One megaton of TNT releases 2.6×1028MeVof energy. (a) Calculate the rating, in tons of TNT, of an atomic bomb containing 95 kg of Pu239, of which 2.5 kg actually undergoes fission. (See Problem 4.) (b) Why is the other 92.5 kg of Pu239needed if it does not fission?

    Found on Page 1331

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