In certain stars the carbon cycle is more effective than the proton–proton cycle in generating energy.This carbon cycle is
(a) Show that this cycle is exactly equivalent in its overall effects to the proton–proton cycle of Fig. 43-11. (b) Verify that the two cycles, as expected, have the same Q value.
(a) The carbon cycle is exactly equivalent to proton-proton cycle.
(b) It is verified that the two cycles have the same Q value.
The expression for energy is given by,
Here, is the energy release in a reaction, is the mass difference between the parent nuclei and the daughter nuclei, and c is the velocity of light.
If can be carefully observed thatin the carbon-carbon cycle, the products are two positrons , two neutrinos , and one helium nucleus .
The same products are also obtained in the proton-proton cycle.
Therefore, the carbon cycle is exactly equivalent to proton-proton cycle.
The value of the energy is the sum of the Q values of the carbon cycle.
The Q value is same for both cycles.
Therefore, it is verified that the two cycles have the same Q value.
Question: In a particular fission event in which is fissioned by slow neutrons, no neutron is emitted and one of the primary fission fragments is . (a) What is the other fragment? The disintegration energy is Q = 170 MeV. How much of this energy goes to (b) the fragment and (c) the other fragment? Just after the fission, what is the speed of (d) the fragment and (e) the other fragment?
In an atomic bomb, energy release is due to the uncontrolled fission of plutonium (or ). The bomb’s rating is the magnitude of the released energy, specified in terms of the mass of TNT required to produce the same energy release. One megaton of TNT releases of energy. (a) Calculate the rating, in tons of TNT, of an atomic bomb containing 95 kg of , of which 2.5 kg actually undergoes fission. (See Problem 4.) (b) Why is the other 92.5 kg of needed if it does not fission?
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