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Chapter 20: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Fundamentals Of Physics
Pages: 583 - 608

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89 Questions for Chapter 20: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

  1. A 364 gblock is put in contact with a thermal reservoir. The block is initially at a lower temperature than the reservoir. Assume that the consequent transfer of energy as heat from the reservoir to the block is reversible. Figure gives the change in entropy ∆S of the block until thermal equilibrium is reached. The scale of the horizontal axis is set byTa=280KandTb=380K. What is the specific heat of the block?

    Found on Page 604
  2. Does the entropy per cycle increase, decrease, or remain the same for (a) a Carnot refrigerator, (b) a real refrigerator, and (c) a perfect refrigerator (which is, of course, impossible to build)?

    Found on Page 603
  3. In an experiment, 200 gof aluminum (with a specific heat of 900J/kg.K) at 100°Cis mixed with 50.0gof water at 20.0°C, with the mixture thermally isolated.(a)What is the equilibrium temperature?(b)What is the entropy changes of the aluminum, (c)What is the entropy changes of the water, and (d)What is the entropy changes of the aluminum – water system?

    Found on Page 604
  4. A gas sample undergoes a reversible isothermal expansion. Figure gives the change∆Sin entropy of the gas versus the final volumeVfof the gas. The scale of the vertical axis is set by∆Ss=64J/K. How many moles are in the sample?

    Found on Page 604
  5. In the irreversible process of Fig. 20.5, let the initial temperatures of the identical blocks L and R be 305.5Kand 294.5K, respectively, and let 215Jbe the energy that must be transferred between the blocks in order to reach equilibrium. For the reversible processes of Fig. 20.6,(a)What is ∆Sfor block L(b)What is ∆Sfor its reservoir, (c)What is ∆Sfor block R ,(d)What is∆Sfor its reservoir, (e)What is∆Sfor the two-block system, and (f)What is∆Sfor the system of the two blocks and the two r

    Found on Page 604
  6. (a) For 1.0molof a monatomic ideal gas taken through the cycle in Figure, whereV1=4.00V0 , what isW/p0V0 as the gas goes from state a to state calong path abc ?(b)What isrole="math" localid="1661581522914" ∆Eint/p0V0 in going from bto cand(c)What is∆Eint/p0V0 in going through one full cycle?(d)What is∆S in going from bto cand(e)What is∆Sin going t

    Found on Page 604
  7. A mixture of1773g of water and 227gof ice is in an initial equilibrium state at 0.000°C. The mixture is then, in a reversible process, brought to a second equilibrium state where the water – ice ratio, by mass, is 1.00 : 1.00at0.000°C. (a)Calculate the entropy change of the system during this process. (The heat of fusion for water is 333 kJ/kg.)(b) The system is then returned to the initial equilibrium state in an irreversible process (say, by using a Bunsen burner). Calculate the entropy change of the system during this process. (c)Are your answers consistent with the second law of thermodynamics?

    Found on Page 605
  8. An 8.0 gice cube at -10°Cis put into a Thermos flask containing 100cm3of water at 20°C. By how much has the entropy of the cube – water system changed when equilibrium is reached? The specific heat of ice is 2220J/kg.K

    Found on Page 605
  9. In Figure 20-25, whereV23=3.00V1,n moles of a diatomic ideal gas are taken through the cycle with the molecules rotating but not oscillating. What are (a)p2/p1, (b)p3/p1, and (c)T3/T1? For path1→2, what are (d)W/nRT1, (e)Q/nRT1, (f)∆Eint/nRT1, and (g)∆S/nR? For path2→3, what are (h)W/nRT1,(i)Q/nRT1(j)∆Eint/nRT1, and (k)∆S/nRT1? For path3→1, what are (l)W/nRT1,(m)role="math" localid="1661575470031" Q/nRT1(n)∆Eint/nRT1, and (o)∆S/nR

    Found on Page 605
  10. A 2.0 molsample of an ideal monatomic gas undergoes the reversible process shown in Figure. The scale of the vertical axis is set byTs=400.0Kand the scale of the horizontal axis is set bySs=20.0J/k. (a) How much energy is absorbed as heat by the gas? (b) What is the change in the internal energy of the gas? (c) How much work is done by the gas?

    Found on Page 605

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