An organic sample of mass 4.00 kg absorbs 2.00J via slow neutron radiation (RBE=5) . What is the dose equivalent (mSv)?
The dose equivalent in mSv is 2.5 mSv.
The equivalent dose of radiation is a measure of the biological damage to the human body due to the ionizing radiation in the radioactive decay processes. The new international system (SI) unit of radiation dose, expressed as absorbed energy per unit mass of tissue is the SI unit "gray". 1 Gy = 1 Joule/kilogram or 1 Gy =1 Sv. RBE (relative biological effectiveness) is a relative measure of the damage done by a given type of radiation per unit of energy deposited in biological tissues.
The dose absorbed of a radiation source, (1)
The dose equivalent of a radiation source, (2)
Using the given data in equation (1), the absorbed dose of the radiation from the source can be given as follows:
Now, the dose equivalent of the radiation to the human body can be given using the above data in equation (2) as follows:
Hence, the value of dose equivalent is 2.5 mSv.
Generally, more massive nuclides tend to be more unstable to alpha decay. For example, the most stable isotope of uranium , has an alpha decay half-life of . The most stable isotope of plutonium is with a half-life, and for curium we have and . When half of an original sample of has decayed, what fraction of the original sample of (a) plutonium and (b) curium is left?
The magic nucleon numbers for nuclei are given in Module 42-8 as 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. Are nuclides magic (that is, especially stable) when (a) only the mass number A, (b) only the atomic number Z, (c) only the neutron number N, or (d) either Z or N (or both) is equal to one of these numbers? Pick all correct phrases.
How much energy is released when a nucleus decays by emitting (a) an alpha particle and (b) a sequence of neutron, proton, neutron, and proton? (c) Convince yourself both by reasoned argument and by direct calculation that the difference between these two numbers is just the total binding energy of the alpha particle. (d) Find that binding energy. Some needed atomic and particle masses are
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