Which of the following observers might observe something that appears to violate Newton's first law of motion? Explain why. (1) A person standing still on a street corner (2) A person riding on a roller coaster (3) A passenger on a starship traveling at 0.75c toward the nearby star Alpha Centauri (4) An airplane pilot doing aerobatic loops (5) A hockey player coasting across the ice.
In the situation only the observers might feel that Newton’s first law appears to be violated.
According to Newton’s First Law of motion If a body is at rest it will remains at rest and if a body is in motion it will remains in motion unless it is compelled by any external force.
(a) This person will not observe any violation to Newton’s first law of motion. Since, this person is standing still, there is no motion. Therefore, the person is in inertial reference frame.
(2) This person will not observe any violation to Newton’s first law of motion. As the one can determine the net force acting on roller coaster using Newton’s first law.
(3) This person observes the violation to Newton’s first law of motion. As this person moves with the speed of 0.75c that is comparable to speed of the light. Here, c is defined as the speed of light. This violates the Newton’s first law of motion.
(4) When the airplane is doing aerobatic loops, one can determine the net force acting on pilot using Newton’s first law so this observation obeys newton’s first law.
(5) If the player coasting across the ice, one can determine the net force acting on it using Newton’s First law of motion so this observation follows Newton’s law
Thus, out of all, the observers in situation may feel that Newton’s first law has been violated.
(a) Which of the following do you see moving with constant velocity? (1) A ship sailing northeast at a speed of 5 meters per second (2) The Moon orbiting the Earth (3) A tennis ball traveling across the court after having been hit by a tennis racket (4) A can of soda sitting on a table (5) A person riding on a Ferris wheel that is turning at a constant rate. (b) In which of the following situations is there observational evidence for significant interaction between two objects? How can you tell? (1) A ball bounces off a wall with no change in speed. (2) A baseball that was hit by a batter flies toward the outfield. (3) A communications satellite orbits the Earth. (4) A space probe travels at constant speed toward a distant star. (5) A charged particle leaves a curving track in a particle detector.
A spaceship at rest with respect to the cosmic microwave background emits a beam of red light. A different spaceship, moving at a speed of m/s towards the first ship, detects the light. Which of the following statements are true for observers on the second ship? (More than one statement may be correct.) (a) They observe that the light travels at m/s. (b) The light is not red. (c) They observe that the light travels at m/s. (d) They observe that the light travels at m/s.
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