To remove one electron from helium requires . and removing its second takes . The ionization energy of hydrogen is . When applied to helium -4 by what percentage is equation (11-5) in error due to its ignoring of electronic binding energies?
The error in tile binding energy of helium nuclei is .
Energy required removing one electron from helium atom .
Energy required remove second electron .
For helium- , binding energy is given by, .
The value of the dimensions used in binding energy is given as:
Simplify further as shown below.
Substitute the values in the formula of binding energy.
True binding energy for helium nuclei .
Therefore true binding energy of helium nuclei should be higher.
The error in percentage is given as:
In electron spin resonance, incoming electromagnetic radiation of the proper (resonant) frequency causes the electron’s magnetic moment to go from its lower-energy, or “relaxed,” orientation, aligned with the external field, to its higher-energy anti-aligned state. MRI is analogous. A quantity commonly discussed in MRI is the ratio of the frequency of the incoming radiation to the external magnetic field. Calculate this ratio for hydrogen. Note that the proton gyromagnetic ratio, , is .
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