What is an atom’s ionization energy? In other words, if you know the ionization energy of an atom, what is it that you know about the atom?
The atom’s ionization energy is the consequence of ionization energy is to leave a positive ion behind.
We need to find the atom’s ionization energy.
Here, talk about ionization energy, know that the ionization energy is the energy needed to remove a ground-state electron from an atom.
So, the consequence of ionization energy is to leave a positive ion behind.
Suppose you have a machine that gives you pieces of candy when you push a button. Eighty percent of the time, pushing the button gets you two pieces of candy. Twenty percent of the time, pushing the button yields pieces. The average number of pieces per push is . That is, pushes should get you, on average, pieces. Mathematically, the average value when the probabilities differ is . We can do the same thing in quantum mechanics, with the difference that the sum becomes an integral. If you measured the distance of the electron from the proton in many hydrogen atoms,
you would get many values, as indicated by the radial probability density. But the average value of would be
Calculate the average value of in terms of for the electron in the and the states of hydrogen.
Two excited energy levels are separated by the very small energy difference . As atoms in these levels undergo quantum jumps to the ground state, the photons they emit have nearly identical wavelengths .
a. Show that the wavelengths differ by
b. In the Lyman series of hydrogen, what is the wavelength difference between photons emitted in the to transition and photons emitted in the to transition?
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