What is the speed of sound in air (a) on a cold winter day in Minnesota when the temperature is –25°F, and (b) on a hot summer day in Death Valley when the temperature is 125°F?
The speed of sound in the air on a cold winter day in place M is .
The speed of sound in the air on a hot summer day in place D is .
The temperature on a cold winter day
The temperature on a hot summer day is
The speed of sound in the air on a cold winter day is
Therefore, the speed of sound in the air on a cold winter day in place M is .
The speed of sound in the air on a hot summer day is
Therefore, the speed of sound in the air on a hot summer day in place D is .
Earthquakes are essentially sound waves—called seismic
waves—traveling through the earth. Because the earth is solid, it can support both longitudinal and transverse seismic waves. The speed of longitudinal waves, called P waves, is 8000 m/s. Transverse waves, called S waves, travel at a slower 4500 m/s. A seismograph records the two waves from a distant earthquake. If the S wave arrives 2.0 min after the P wave, how far away was the earthquake? You can assume that the waves travel in straight lines, although actual seismic waves follow more complex routes.
A distant star system is discovered in which a planet with
twice the radius of the earth and rotating 3.0 times as fast as the
earth orbits a star with a total power output of .
a. If the star’s radius is 6.0 times that of the sun, what is the
electromagnetic wave intensity at the surface? Astronomers
call this the surface flux. Astronomical data are provided
inside the back cover of the book.
b. Every planet-day (one rotation), the planet receives .
of energy. What is the planet’s distance from its star? Give
your answer in astronomical units (AU), where 1 AU is the
distance of the earth from the sun.
Oil explorers set off explosives to make loud sounds, then listen for the echoes from underground oil deposits. Geologists suspect that there is oil under 500-m-deep Lake Physics. It’s known that Lake Physics is carved out of a granite basin. Explorers detect a weak echo 0.94 s after exploding dynamite at the lake surface. If it’s really oil, how deep will they have to drill into the granite to reach it?
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