Q. 51

Expert-verifiedFound in: Page 453

Book edition
4th

Author(s)
Randall D. Knight

Pages
1240 pages

ISBN
9780133942651

Earthquakes are essentially sound waves—called seismic

waves—traveling through the earth. Because the earth is solid, it can support both longitudinal and transverse seismic waves. The speed of longitudinal waves, called P waves, is 8000 m/s. Transverse waves, called S waves, travel at a slower 4500 m/s. A seismograph records the two waves from a distant earthquake. If the S wave arrives 2.0 min after the P wave, how far away was the earthquake? You can assume that the waves travel in straight lines, although actual seismic waves follow more complex routes.

The earthquake was a distance of

The speed of longitudinal wave (P-wave) is,

The speed of transverse wave is (S-wave),

Consider the arrival time of longitudinal wave is, and the arrival time of transverse wave is,

According to the question,

We take, the earthquake is at a distance of

So consider the P-wave,

For the S-wave,

Assuming the waves travel at straight lines, then we can write from the above equations,

Substituting the value of in equation , we get,

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