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Chapter 3: Thermodynamics

University Physics with Modern Physics
Pages: 544 - 681
University Physics with Modern Physics

University Physics with Modern Physics

Book edition 14th edition
Author(s) Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman
Pages 1596 pages
ISBN 9780321973610

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366 Questions for Chapter 3: Thermodynamics

  1. One experimental method of measuring an insulating material’s thermal conductivity is to construct a box of the material and measure the power input to an electric heater inside the box that maintains the interior at a measured temperature above the outside surface. Suppose that in such an apparatus a power input of 180Wis required to keep the interior surface of the box(about120F°) above the temperature of the outer surface. The total area of the box is2.18m2, and the wall thickness is 3.90cm. Find the thermal conductivity of the material in SI units.

    Found on Page 580
  2. In an adiabatic process for an ideal gas, the pressure decreases. In this process does the internal energy of the gas increase or decrease? Explain.

    Found on Page 639
  3. Compare the pV-diagram for the Otto cycle in Fig. 20.6with the diagram for the Carnot heat engine in Fig. 20.13. Explain some of the important differences between the two cycles.

    Found on Page 676
  4. In some household air conditioners used in dry climates, air is cooled by blowing it through a water-soaked filter, evaporating some of the water. How does this cool the air? Would such a system work well in a high-humidity climate? Why or why not?

    Found on Page 573
  5. Use the concepts of the kinetic-molecular model to explain: (a) why the pressure of a gas in a rigid container increases as heat is added to the gas and (b) why the pressure of a gas increases as we compress it, even if we do not change its temperature.

    Found on Page 609
  6. An empty cylindrical canister 1.50 m long and 90.0 cm in diameter is to be filled with pure oxygen at 22.0°C to store in a space station. To hold as much gas as possible, the absolute pressure of the oxygen will be 21.0 atm. The molar mass of oxygen is 32.0 g>mol. (a) How many moles of oxygen does this canister hold? (b) For someone lifting this canister, by how many kilograms does this gas increase the mass to be lifted?

    Found on Page 610
  7. Like the Kelvin scale, the Rankinescaleis an absolute temperature scale: Absolute zero is zero degrees Rankine (0ºR). However, the units of this scale are the same size as those of the Fahrenheit scale rather than the Celsius scale. What is the numerical value of the triple-point temperature of water on the Rankine scale?

    Found on Page 574
  8. Five moles of an ideal monatomic gas with an initial temperature of127°Cexpand and, in the process, absorb 1500 J of heat and do 2100 J of work. What is the final temperature of the gas?

    Found on Page 640
  9. A Walk in the Sun. Consider a poor lost soul walking at \(5\;{{km} \mathord{\left/{\vphantom {{km} h}} \right.\\} h}\) on a hot day in the desert, wearing only a bathing suit. This person’s skin temperature tends to rise due to four mechanisms: (i) energy is generated by metabolic reactions in the body at a rate of \(280\;W\), and almost all of this energy is converted to heat that flows to the skin; (ii) heat is delivered to the skin by convection from the outside air at a rate equal to \(k'{A_{skin}}\left( {{T_{air}} - {T_{skin}}} \right)\), where \(k'\) is \(54\;{J \mathord{\left/{\vphantom {J {h \cdot {C\circ } \cdot {m2}}}} \right.\\} {h \cdot {C\circ } \cdot {m2}}}\) , the exposed skin area \(k'{A_{skin}}\) is \(1.5\;{m2}\) , the air temperature \({T_{air}}\) is \(47\circ C\), and the skin temperature \({T_{skin}}\) is \(36\circ C\) ; (iii) the skin absorbs radiant energy from the sun at a rate of \(1400\;{W \mathord{\left/{\vphantom {W {{m^2}}}} \right.\\} {{m^2}}}\); (iv) the skin absorbs radiant energy from the environment, which has temperature \(47^\circ C\). (a) Calculate the net rate (in watts) at which the person’s skin is heated by all four of these mechanisms. Assume that the emissivity of the skin is \(e = 1\) and that the skin temperature is initially \(36^\circ C\). Which mechanism is the most important?

    Found on Page 581
  10. A hollow cylinder has length \(L\), inner radius \(a\), and outer radius \(b\), and the temperatures at the inner and outer surfaces are \({T_2}\) and \({T_1}\). (The cylinder could represent an insulated hot-water pipe.) The thermal conductivity of the material of which the cylinder is made is \(k\). Derive an equation for

    Found on Page 582

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